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authorMarkus Warg <mw@it-sls.de>2010-03-29 09:54:06 +0200
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+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
+<html><head>
+<title>Assurance Policy</title>
+
+<meta name="CREATED" content="20080530;0">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<meta name="CHANGED" content="20080709;12381800">
+<meta name="CREATEDBY" content="Ian Grigg">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Robert Cruikshank">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<style type="text/css">
+<!--
+P { color: #000000 }
+TD P { color: #000000 }
+H1 { color: #000000 }
+H2 { color: #000000 }
+DT { color: #000000 }
+DD { color: #000000 }
+H3 { color: #000000 }
+TH P { color: #000000 }
+-->
+</style></head>
+<body style="direction: ltr; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" lang="en-GB">
+<h1>Assurance Policy for CAcert Community Members</h1>
+<p><a href="PolicyOnPolicy.php"><img src="/images/cacert-policy.png" id="graphics1" alt="CAcert Policy Status == POLICY" align="bottom" border="0" height="33" width="90"></a>
+<br>
+Editor: Teus Hagen<br>
+Creation date: 2008-05-30<br>
+Last change by: Iang<br>
+Last change date: 2009-01-08<br>
+Status: POLICY p20090105.2
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="0">0.</a> Preamble</h2>
+<h3><a name="0.1">0.1.</a> Definition of Terms</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt><i>Member</i> </dt>
+<dd> A Member is an individual who has agreed to the CAcert
+Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>)
+and has created successfully
+a CAcert login account on the CAcert web site. </dd>
+<dt> <i>Assurance</i> </dt>
+<dd> Assurance is the process by which a Member of CAcert
+Community (Assurer) identifies an individual (<span lang="en-US">Assuree</span>).
+</dd>
+<dt> <i>Prospective Member</i> </dt>
+<dd> An individual who participates in the process of Assurance,
+but has not yet created a CAcert login account. </dd>
+<dt> <i>Name</i> </dt>
+<dd> A Name is the full name of an individual.
+</dd>
+<dt> <i>Secondary Distinguishing Feature</i>
+</dt>
+<dd> An additional personal data item of the Member
+that assists discrimination from Members with similar full names.
+(Currently this is the Date of Birth (DoB).)
+</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<h3><a name="0.2">0.2.</a> The CAcert Web of Trust</h3>
+<p>
+In face-to-face meetings,
+an Assurer allocates a number of Assurance Points
+to the Member being Assured.
+CAcert combines the Assurance Points
+into a global <i>Web-of-Trust</i> (or "WoT").
+</p>
+<p>
+CAcert explicitly chooses to meet its various goals by
+construction of a Web-of-Trust of all Members.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="0.3">0.3.</a> Related Documentation</h3>
+<p>
+Documentation on Assurance is split between this
+Assurance Policy (AP) and the
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance
+Handbook</a>. The policy is controlled by Configuration Control
+Specification
+(<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/ConfigurationControlSpecification" target="_blank">CCS</a>)
+under Policy on Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>)
+policy document regime. Because Assurance is an active area, much
+of the practice is handed over to the Assurance Handbook, which is
+not a controlled policy document, and can more easily respond to
+experience and circumstances. It is also more readable.
+</p>
+<p>
+See also Organisation Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php" target="_blank">OAP</a>)
+and CAcert Policy Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="1">1.</a> Assurance Purpose</h2>
+<p>The purpose of Assurance is to add confidence
+in the Assurance Statement made by the CAcert Community of a Member. </p>
+<p>With sufficient assurances, a Member may: (a) issue certificates
+with their assured Name included, (b) participate in assuring others,
+and (c) other related activities. The strength of these activities is
+based on the strength of the assurance. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="1.1">1.1.</a>The Assurance Statement</h3>
+<p>
+The Assurance Statement makes the following claims
+about a person:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<p>The person is a bona fide Member. In other words, the
+person is a member of the CAcert Community as defined by the CAcert
+Community Agreement (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member has a (login) account with CAcert's on-line
+registration and service system; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member can be determined from any CAcert certificate
+issued by the Account; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member is bound into CAcert's Arbitration as defined
+by the CAcert Community Agreement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Some personal details of the Member are known to CAcert:
+the individual Name(s), primary and other listed individual email
+address(es), secondary distinguishing feature (e.g. DoB). </p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>The confidence level of the Assurance Statement is expressed by
+the Assurance Points. </p>
+<h3><a name="1.2">1.2.</a>Relying Party Statement</h3>
+<p>The primary goal of the Assurance Statement is for the express
+purpose of certificates to meet the needs of the <i>Relying Party
+Statement</i>, which latter is found in the Certification Practice
+Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
+</p>
+<p>When a certificate is issued, some of the Assurance Statement may
+be incorporated, e.g. Name. Other parts may be implied, e.g.
+Membership, exact account and status. They all are part of the
+<i>Relying Party Statement</i>. In short, this means that other
+Members of the Community may rely on the information verified by
+Assurance and found in the certificate.</p>
+<p>In particular, certificates are sometimes considered to provide
+reliable indications of e.g. the Member's Name and email address. The
+nature of Assurance, the number of Assurance Points, and other
+policies and processes should be understood as limitations on any
+reliance. </p>
+<h2><a name="2">2.</a> The Member</h2>
+<h3><a name="2.1">2.1.</a> The Member's Name </h3>
+<p>
+At least one individual Name is recorded in the Member's
+CAcert login account. The general standard of a Name is:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+The Name should be recorded as written in a
+government-issued photo identity document (ID).
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+The Name should be recorded as completely as possible.
+That is, including all middle names, any titles and extensions,
+without abbreviations, and without transliteration of characters.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Name is recorded as a string of characters,
+encoded in <span lang="en-US">unicode</span>
+transformation format.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h3><a name="2.2">2.2.</a> Multiple Names and variations</h3>
+<p>
+In order to handle the contradictions in the above general standard,
+a Member may record multiple Names or multiple variations of a Name
+in her CAcert online Account.
+Examples of variations include married names,
+variations of initials of first or middle names,
+abbreviations of a first name,
+different language or country variations,
+and transliterations of characters in a name.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="2.3">2.3.</a> Status and Capabilities</h3>
+<p>
+A Name which has reached
+the level of 50 Assurance Points is defined as an Assured
+Name. An Assured Name can be used in a certificate issued by CAcert.
+A Member with at least one Assured Name has reached the Assured
+Member status.
+Additional capabilities are described in Table 1.
+</p>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 1:
+Assurance Capability</i></font></p>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td width="10%">
+<p align="left"><i>Minimum Assurance Points</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="15%">
+<p align="left"><i>Capability</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="15%">
+<p align="left"><i>Status</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="60%">
+<p align="left"><i>Comment</i></p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request Assurance</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Prospective Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Individual taking part of an
+Assurance, who does not have created a CAcert login account (yet). The
+allocation of Assurance Points is awaiting login account creation.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request unnamed certificates</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Although the Member's details are
+recorded in the account, they are not highly assured.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">50</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request named certificates</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Assured Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Statements of Assurance: the Name is
+assured to 50 Assurance Points or more</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">100</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Become an Assurer</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Prospective Assurer</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Assured to 100 Assurance Points (or
+more) on at least one Name, and passing the Assurer Challenge.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+A Member may check the status of another Member, especially
+for an assurance process.
+Status may be implied from information in a certificate.
+The number of Assurance Points for each Member is not published.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The CAcert Policy Statement
+(<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>)
+and other policies may list other capabilities that rely on Assurance
+Points.
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="3">3.</a> The Assurer</h2>
+<p>An Assurer is a Member with the following: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Is assured to a minimum of 100 Assurance Points; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Has passed the CAcert Assurer Challenge. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The Assurer Challenge is administered by the Education Team on
+behalf of the Assurance Officer. </p>
+<h3><a name="3.1">3.1.</a> The Obligations of the Assurer</h3>
+<p>The Assurer is obliged to: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Follow this Assurance Policy; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Follow any additional rules of detail laid out by the
+CAcert Assurance Officer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Be guided by the CAcert <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance Handbook</a> in their
+judgement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Make a good faith effort at identifying and verifying
+Members; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Maintain the documentation on each Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Deliver documentation to Arbitration, or as otherwise
+directed by the Arbitrator; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Keep up-to-date with developments within the CAcert
+Community. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h2><a name="4">4.</a> The Assurance</h2>
+<h3><a name="4.1">4.1.</a> The Assurance Process</h3>
+<p>The Assurer conducts the process of Assurance with each
+Member. </p>
+<p>The process consists of: </p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<p>Voluntary agreement by both Assurer and Member or
+Prospective Member to conduct the Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Personal meeting of Assurer and Member or Prospective
+Member; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Recording of essential details on CAcert Assurance
+Programme form; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Examination of Identity documents by Assurer and
+verification of recorded details (the Name(s) and Secondary
+Distinguishing Feature, e.g., DoB); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Allocation of Assurance Points by Assurer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Optional: supervision of reciprocal Assurance made by
+Assuree (Mutual Assurance); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Safekeeping of the CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+forms by Assurer. </p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<h3><a name="4.2">4.2.</a> Mutual Assurance</h3>
+<p>Mutual Assurance follows the principle of reciprocity. This
+means
+that the Assurance may be two-way, and that each member participating
+in the Assurance procedure should be able to show evidence of their
+identity to the other. </p>
+<p>In the event that an Assurer is assured by a Member who is not
+certified as an Assurer, the Assurer supervises the Assurance
+procedure and process, and is responsible for the results. </p>
+<p>Reciprocity maintains a balance between the (new) member and
+the
+Assurer, and reduces any sense of power. It is also an important aid
+to the assurance training for future Assurers. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="4.3">4.3.</a> Assurance Points</h3>
+<p>The Assurance applies Assurance Points to each Member which
+measure the increase of confidence in the Statement (above).
+Assurance Points should not be interpreted for any other purpose.
+Note that, even though they are sometimes referred to as <i>Web-of-Trust</i>
+(Assurance) Points, or <i>Trust</i> Points, the meaning
+of the word
+'Trust' is not well defined. </p>
+<p><i>Assurance Points Allocation</i><br>
+An Assurer can allocate a
+number of Assurance Points to the Member according to the Assurer's
+experience (Experience Point system, see below). The allocation of
+the maximum means that the Assurer is 100% confident in the
+information presented: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Detail on form, system, documents, person in accordance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Sufficient quality identity documents have been checked; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assurer's familiarity with identity documents; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Assurance Statement is confirmed. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Any lesser confidence should result in less Assurance Points for a
+Name. If the Assurer has no confidence in the information presented,
+then <i>zero</i> Assurance Points may be allocated by the Assurer.
+For example, this may happen if the identity documents are totally
+unfamiliar to the Assurer. The number of Assurance Points from <i>zero</i>
+to <i>maximum</i> is guided by the Assurance Handbook
+and the judgement of the Assurer.
+If there is negative confidence the Assurer should consider
+filing a dispute.
+</p>
+<p>Multiple Names should be allocated Assurance Points
+independently within a single Assurance. </p>
+<p>
+A Member who is not an Assurer may award an Assurer in a
+reciprocal process a maximum of 2 Assurance Points, according to
+her judgement. The Assurer should strive to have the Member allocate
+according to the Member's judgement, and stay on the cautious side;
+the Member new to the assurance process
+should allocate <i>zero</i> Assurance Points
+until she gains some confidence in what is happening.
+</p>
+<p>
+In general, for a Member to reach 50 Assurance Points, the Member must
+have participated in at least two assurances, and
+at least one Name will have been assured to that level.
+</p>
+<p>
+To reach 100 Assurance
+Points, at least one Name of the Assured Member must have been
+assured at least three times.
+</p>
+<p>
+The maximum number of Assurance
+Points which can be allocated for an Assurance under this policy
+and under any act under any
+Subsidiary Policy (below) is 50 Assurance Points.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="4.4">4.4.</a> Experience Points</h3>
+<p>The maximum number of Assurance Points that may be awarded by
+an
+Assurer is determined by the Experience Points of the Assurer. </p>
+<blockquote>
+<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 2:
+Maximum of Assurance Points </i></font>
+</p>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="15%">
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p><i>Assurer's Experience Points</i></p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p><i>Allocatable Assurance Points</i></p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">10</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">10</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">15</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">20</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">20</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">30</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">25</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">40</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">30</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">&gt;=50</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">35</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</blockquote>
+<p>An Assurer is given a maximum of 2 Experience Points for every
+completed Assurance. On reaching Assurer status, the Experience
+Points start at 0 (zero). </p>
+<p>Less Experience Points (1) may be given for mass Assurance
+events,
+where each Assurance is quicker. </p>
+<p>Additional Experience Points may be granted temporarily or
+permanently to an Assurer by CAcert Inc.'s Committee (board), on
+recommendation from the Assurance Officer. </p>
+<p>Experience Points are not to be confused with Assurance
+Points. </p>
+<h3><a name="4.5">4.5.</a> CAcert Assurance Programme (CAP) form</h3>
+<p>The CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form requests the following details of each Member or Prospective
+Member: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Name(s), as recorded in the on-line account; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Primary email address, as recorded in the on-line account;
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Secondary Distinguishing Feature, as recorded in the
+on-line account (normally, date of birth); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Statement of agreement with the CAcert Community
+Agreement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Permission to the Assurer to conduct the Assurance
+(required for privacy reasons); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Date and signature of the Assuree. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The CAP form requests the following details of the Assurer: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>At least one Name as recorded in the on-line account of
+the Assurer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assurance Points for each Name in the identity
+document(s); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Statement of Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Optional: If the Assurance is reciprocal, then the
+Assurer's email address and Secondary Distinguishing Feature are
+required as well; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Date, location of Assurance and signature of Assurer. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The CAP forms are to be kept at least for 7 years by the
+Assurer. </p>
+<h2><a name="5">5.</a> The Assurance Officer</h2>
+<p>The Committee (board) of CAcert Inc. appoints an Assurance
+Officer
+with the following responsibilities: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Reporting to the Committee and advising on all matters to
+do with Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Training and testing of Assurers, in association with the
+Education Team; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Updating this Assurance Policy, under the process
+established by Policy on Policy (<a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Management of all Subsidiary Policies (see below) for
+Assurances, under Policy on Policy; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Managing and creating rules of detail or procedure where
+inappropriate for policies; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Incorporating rulings from Arbitration into policies,
+procedures or guidelines; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assisting the Arbitrator in any requests; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Managing the Assurer Handbook; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Maintaining a sufficient strength in the Assurance process
+(web-of-trust) to meet the agreed needs of the Community. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h2><a name="6">6.</a> Subsidiary Policies</h2>
+<p>The Assurance Officer manages various exceptions and additional
+processes. Each must be covered by an approved Subsidiary Policy
+(refer to Policy on Policy =&gt; CAcert Official Document COD1).
+Subsidiary Policies specify any additional tests of knowledge
+required and variations to process and documentation, within the
+general standard stated here. </p>
+<h3><a name="6.1">6.1.</a> Standard</h3>
+<p>Each Subsidiary Policy must augment and improve the general
+standards in this Assurance Policy. It is the responsibility of each
+Subsidiary Policy to describe how it maintains and improves the
+specific and overall goals. It must describe exceptions and potential
+areas of risk. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="6.2">6.2.</a> High Risk Applications</h3>
+<p>In addition to the Assurance or Experience Points ratings set
+here and in other subsidiary policies, the Assurance Officer or policies can
+designate certain applications as high risk. If so, additional
+measures may be added to the Assurance process that specifically
+address the risks.</p>
+<p>Additional measures may include:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Additional information can be required in process of assurance: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>unique numbers of identity documents,</li>
+<li>photocopy of identity documents,</li>
+<li>photo of User,</li>
+<li>address of User.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Additional Information is to be kept by Assurer, attached to
+CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form. Assurance Points allocation by this assurance is unchanged.
+User's CAcert login account should be annotated to record type of
+additional information;</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Arbitration: </p>
+<ul>
+<li> Member to participate in Arbitration. This confirms
+their acceptance of the forum as well as trains in the process and
+import,
+</li>
+<li> Member to file Arbitration to present case. This
+allows Arbitrator as final authority;
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Additional training; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Member to be Assurer (at least 100 Assurance Points and
+passed Assurer Challenge); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Member agrees to additional specific agreement(s); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Additional checking/auditing of systems data by CAcert
+support administrators. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Applications that might attract additional measures include
+code-signing certificates and administration roles. </p>
+<h2><a name="7">7.</a> Privacy</h2>
+<p>CAcert is a "privacy" organisation, and takes the
+privacy of its Members seriously. The process maintains the security
+and privacy of both parties. </p>
+<p>Information is collected primarily to make claims within the
+certificates requested by users and to contact the Members. It is
+used secondarily for training, testing, administration and other
+internal purposes. </p>
+<p>The Member's information can be accessed under these
+circumstances: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Under Arbitrator ruling, in a duly filed dispute (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php" target="_blank">Dispute Resolution Policy</a>
+=&gt; COD7); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>An Assurer in the process of an Assurance, as permitted on
+the CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>CAcert support administration and CAcert systems
+administration when operating under the authority of Arbitrator or
+under CAcert policy. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p><a href="http://validator.w3.org/check?uri=referer"><img src="/images/valid-xhtml11-blue" id="graphics2" alt="Valid XHTML 1.1" align="bottom" border="0" height="33" width="90"></a>
+</p>
+</body></html>
+