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+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
+<html><head>
+<title>Assurance Policy</title>
+
+<meta name="CREATED" content="20080530;0">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<meta name="CHANGED" content="20080709;12381800">
+<meta name="CREATEDBY" content="Ian Grigg">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Robert Cruikshank">
+<meta name="CHANGEDBY" content="Teus Hagen">
+<style type="text/css">
+<!--
+P { color: #000000 }
+TD P { color: #000000 }
+H1 { color: #000000 }
+H2 { color: #000000 }
+DT { color: #000000 }
+DD { color: #000000 }
+H3 { color: #000000 }
+TH P { color: #000000 }
+-->
+</style></head>
+<body style="direction: ltr; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" lang="en-GB">
+<h1>Assurance Policy for CAcert Community Members</h1>
+<p><a href="PolicyOnPolicy.php"><img src="/images/cacert-policy.png" id="graphics1" alt="CAcert Policy Status == POLICY" align="bottom" border="0" height="33" width="90"></a>
+<br>
+Editor: Teus Hagen<br>
+Creation date: 2008-05-30<br>
+Last change by: Iang<br>
+Last change date: 2009-01-08<br>
+Status: POLICY p20090105.2
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="0">0.</a> Preamble</h2>
+<h3><a name="0.1">0.1.</a> Definition of Terms</h3>
+<dl>
+<dt><i>Member</i> </dt>
+<dd> A Member is an individual who has agreed to the CAcert
+Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>)
+and has created successfully
+a CAcert login account on the CAcert web site. </dd>
+<dt> <i>Assurance</i> </dt>
+<dd> Assurance is the process by which a Member of CAcert
+Community (Assurer) identifies an individual (<span lang="en-US">Assuree</span>).
+</dd>
+<dt> <i>Prospective Member</i> </dt>
+<dd> An individual who participates in the process of Assurance,
+but has not yet created a CAcert login account. </dd>
+<dt> <i>Name</i> </dt>
+<dd> A Name is the full name of an individual.
+</dd>
+<dt> <i>Secondary Distinguishing Feature</i>
+</dt>
+<dd> An additional personal data item of the Member
+that assists discrimination from Members with similar full names.
+(Currently this is the Date of Birth (DoB).)
+</dd>
+</dl>
+
+<h3><a name="0.2">0.2.</a> The CAcert Web of Trust</h3>
+<p>
+In face-to-face meetings,
+an Assurer allocates a number of Assurance Points
+to the Member being Assured.
+CAcert combines the Assurance Points
+into a global <i>Web-of-Trust</i> (or "WoT").
+</p>
+<p>
+CAcert explicitly chooses to meet its various goals by
+construction of a Web-of-Trust of all Members.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="0.3">0.3.</a> Related Documentation</h3>
+<p>
+Documentation on Assurance is split between this
+Assurance Policy (AP) and the
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance
+Handbook</a>. The policy is controlled by Configuration Control
+Specification
+(<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/ConfigurationControlSpecification" target="_blank">CCS</a>)
+under Policy on Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>)
+policy document regime. Because Assurance is an active area, much
+of the practice is handed over to the Assurance Handbook, which is
+not a controlled policy document, and can more easily respond to
+experience and circumstances. It is also more readable.
+</p>
+<p>
+See also Organisation Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php" target="_blank">OAP</a>)
+and CAcert Policy Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="1">1.</a> Assurance Purpose</h2>
+<p>The purpose of Assurance is to add confidence
+in the Assurance Statement made by the CAcert Community of a Member. </p>
+<p>With sufficient assurances, a Member may: (a) issue certificates
+with their assured Name included, (b) participate in assuring others,
+and (c) other related activities. The strength of these activities is
+based on the strength of the assurance. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="1.1">1.1.</a>The Assurance Statement</h3>
+<p>
+The Assurance Statement makes the following claims
+about a person:
+</p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<p>The person is a bona fide Member. In other words, the
+person is a member of the CAcert Community as defined by the CAcert
+Community Agreement (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php" target="_blank">CCA</a>); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member has a (login) account with CAcert's on-line
+registration and service system; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member can be determined from any CAcert certificate
+issued by the Account; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Member is bound into CAcert's Arbitration as defined
+by the CAcert Community Agreement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Some personal details of the Member are known to CAcert:
+the individual Name(s), primary and other listed individual email
+address(es), secondary distinguishing feature (e.g. DoB). </p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<p>The confidence level of the Assurance Statement is expressed by
+the Assurance Points. </p>
+<h3><a name="1.2">1.2.</a>Relying Party Statement</h3>
+<p>The primary goal of the Assurance Statement is for the express
+purpose of certificates to meet the needs of the <i>Relying Party
+Statement</i>, which latter is found in the Certification Practice
+Statement (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>).
+</p>
+<p>When a certificate is issued, some of the Assurance Statement may
+be incorporated, e.g. Name. Other parts may be implied, e.g.
+Membership, exact account and status. They all are part of the
+<i>Relying Party Statement</i>. In short, this means that other
+Members of the Community may rely on the information verified by
+Assurance and found in the certificate.</p>
+<p>In particular, certificates are sometimes considered to provide
+reliable indications of e.g. the Member's Name and email address. The
+nature of Assurance, the number of Assurance Points, and other
+policies and processes should be understood as limitations on any
+reliance. </p>
+<h2><a name="2">2.</a> The Member</h2>
+<h3><a name="2.1">2.1.</a> The Member's Name </h3>
+<p>
+At least one individual Name is recorded in the Member's
+CAcert login account. The general standard of a Name is:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>
+The Name should be recorded as written in a
+government-issued photo identity document (ID).
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+The Name should be recorded as completely as possible.
+That is, including all middle names, any titles and extensions,
+without abbreviations, and without transliteration of characters.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Name is recorded as a string of characters,
+encoded in <span lang="en-US">unicode</span>
+transformation format.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h3><a name="2.2">2.2.</a> Multiple Names and variations</h3>
+<p>
+In order to handle the contradictions in the above general standard,
+a Member may record multiple Names or multiple variations of a Name
+in her CAcert online Account.
+Examples of variations include married names,
+variations of initials of first or middle names,
+abbreviations of a first name,
+different language or country variations,
+and transliterations of characters in a name.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="2.3">2.3.</a> Status and Capabilities</h3>
+<p>
+A Name which has reached
+the level of 50 Assurance Points is defined as an Assured
+Name. An Assured Name can be used in a certificate issued by CAcert.
+A Member with at least one Assured Name has reached the Assured
+Member status.
+Additional capabilities are described in Table 1.
+</p>
+
+<blockquote>
+<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 1:
+Assurance Capability</i></font></p>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td width="10%">
+<p align="left"><i>Minimum Assurance Points</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="15%">
+<p align="left"><i>Capability</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="15%">
+<p align="left"><i>Status</i></p>
+</td>
+<td width="60%">
+<p align="left"><i>Comment</i></p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request Assurance</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Prospective Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Individual taking part of an
+Assurance, who does not have created a CAcert login account (yet). The
+allocation of Assurance Points is awaiting login account creation.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request unnamed certificates</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Although the Member's details are
+recorded in the account, they are not highly assured.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">50</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Request named certificates</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Assured Member</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Statements of Assurance: the Name is
+assured to 50 Assurance Points or more</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="top">
+<td>
+<p align="center">100</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Become an Assurer</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Prospective Assurer</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="left">Assured to 100 Assurance Points (or
+more) on at least one Name, and passing the Assurer Challenge.</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</blockquote>
+
+
+<p>
+A Member may check the status of another Member, especially
+for an assurance process.
+Status may be implied from information in a certificate.
+The number of Assurance Points for each Member is not published.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The CAcert Policy Statement
+(<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm" target="_blank">CPS</a>)
+and other policies may list other capabilities that rely on Assurance
+Points.
+</p>
+
+<h2><a name="3">3.</a> The Assurer</h2>
+<p>An Assurer is a Member with the following: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Is assured to a minimum of 100 Assurance Points; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Has passed the CAcert Assurer Challenge. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The Assurer Challenge is administered by the Education Team on
+behalf of the Assurance Officer. </p>
+<h3><a name="3.1">3.1.</a> The Obligations of the Assurer</h3>
+<p>The Assurer is obliged to: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Follow this Assurance Policy; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Follow any additional rules of detail laid out by the
+CAcert Assurance Officer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Be guided by the CAcert <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AssuranceHandbook2" target="_blank">Assurance Handbook</a> in their
+judgement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Make a good faith effort at identifying and verifying
+Members; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Maintain the documentation on each Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Deliver documentation to Arbitration, or as otherwise
+directed by the Arbitrator; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Keep up-to-date with developments within the CAcert
+Community. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h2><a name="4">4.</a> The Assurance</h2>
+<h3><a name="4.1">4.1.</a> The Assurance Process</h3>
+<p>The Assurer conducts the process of Assurance with each
+Member. </p>
+<p>The process consists of: </p>
+<ol>
+<li>
+<p>Voluntary agreement by both Assurer and Member or
+Prospective Member to conduct the Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Personal meeting of Assurer and Member or Prospective
+Member; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Recording of essential details on CAcert Assurance
+Programme form; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Examination of Identity documents by Assurer and
+verification of recorded details (the Name(s) and Secondary
+Distinguishing Feature, e.g., DoB); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Allocation of Assurance Points by Assurer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Optional: supervision of reciprocal Assurance made by
+Assuree (Mutual Assurance); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Safekeeping of the CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+forms by Assurer. </p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+<h3><a name="4.2">4.2.</a> Mutual Assurance</h3>
+<p>Mutual Assurance follows the principle of reciprocity. This
+means
+that the Assurance may be two-way, and that each member participating
+in the Assurance procedure should be able to show evidence of their
+identity to the other. </p>
+<p>In the event that an Assurer is assured by a Member who is not
+certified as an Assurer, the Assurer supervises the Assurance
+procedure and process, and is responsible for the results. </p>
+<p>Reciprocity maintains a balance between the (new) member and
+the
+Assurer, and reduces any sense of power. It is also an important aid
+to the assurance training for future Assurers. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="4.3">4.3.</a> Assurance Points</h3>
+<p>The Assurance applies Assurance Points to each Member which
+measure the increase of confidence in the Statement (above).
+Assurance Points should not be interpreted for any other purpose.
+Note that, even though they are sometimes referred to as <i>Web-of-Trust</i>
+(Assurance) Points, or <i>Trust</i> Points, the meaning
+of the word
+'Trust' is not well defined. </p>
+<p><i>Assurance Points Allocation</i><br>
+An Assurer can allocate a
+number of Assurance Points to the Member according to the Assurer's
+experience (Experience Point system, see below). The allocation of
+the maximum means that the Assurer is 100% confident in the
+information presented: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Detail on form, system, documents, person in accordance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Sufficient quality identity documents have been checked; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assurer's familiarity with identity documents; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The Assurance Statement is confirmed. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Any lesser confidence should result in less Assurance Points for a
+Name. If the Assurer has no confidence in the information presented,
+then <i>zero</i> Assurance Points may be allocated by the Assurer.
+For example, this may happen if the identity documents are totally
+unfamiliar to the Assurer. The number of Assurance Points from <i>zero</i>
+to <i>maximum</i> is guided by the Assurance Handbook
+and the judgement of the Assurer.
+If there is negative confidence the Assurer should consider
+filing a dispute.
+</p>
+<p>Multiple Names should be allocated Assurance Points
+independently within a single Assurance. </p>
+<p>
+A Member who is not an Assurer may award an Assurer in a
+reciprocal process a maximum of 2 Assurance Points, according to
+her judgement. The Assurer should strive to have the Member allocate
+according to the Member's judgement, and stay on the cautious side;
+the Member new to the assurance process
+should allocate <i>zero</i> Assurance Points
+until she gains some confidence in what is happening.
+</p>
+<p>
+In general, for a Member to reach 50 Assurance Points, the Member must
+have participated in at least two assurances, and
+at least one Name will have been assured to that level.
+</p>
+<p>
+To reach 100 Assurance
+Points, at least one Name of the Assured Member must have been
+assured at least three times.
+</p>
+<p>
+The maximum number of Assurance
+Points which can be allocated for an Assurance under this policy
+and under any act under any
+Subsidiary Policy (below) is 50 Assurance Points.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="4.4">4.4.</a> Experience Points</h3>
+<p>The maximum number of Assurance Points that may be awarded by
+an
+Assurer is determined by the Experience Points of the Assurer. </p>
+<blockquote>
+<p align="left"><font size="2"><i>Table 2:
+Maximum of Assurance Points </i></font>
+</p>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="15%">
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p><i>Assurer's Experience Points</i></p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p><i>Allocatable Assurance Points</i></p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">0</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">10</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">10</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">15</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">20</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">20</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">30</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">25</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">40</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">30</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>
+<p align="center">&gt;=50</p>
+</td>
+<td>
+<p align="center">35</p>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+</blockquote>
+<p>An Assurer is given a maximum of 2 Experience Points for every
+completed Assurance. On reaching Assurer status, the Experience
+Points start at 0 (zero). </p>
+<p>Less Experience Points (1) may be given for mass Assurance
+events,
+where each Assurance is quicker. </p>
+<p>Additional Experience Points may be granted temporarily or
+permanently to an Assurer by CAcert Inc.'s Committee (board), on
+recommendation from the Assurance Officer. </p>
+<p>Experience Points are not to be confused with Assurance
+Points. </p>
+<h3><a name="4.5">4.5.</a> CAcert Assurance Programme (CAP) form</h3>
+<p>The CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form requests the following details of each Member or Prospective
+Member: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Name(s), as recorded in the on-line account; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Primary email address, as recorded in the on-line account;
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Secondary Distinguishing Feature, as recorded in the
+on-line account (normally, date of birth); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Statement of agreement with the CAcert Community
+Agreement; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Permission to the Assurer to conduct the Assurance
+(required for privacy reasons); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Date and signature of the Assuree. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The CAP form requests the following details of the Assurer: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>At least one Name as recorded in the on-line account of
+the Assurer; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assurance Points for each Name in the identity
+document(s); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Statement of Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Optional: If the Assurance is reciprocal, then the
+Assurer's email address and Secondary Distinguishing Feature are
+required as well; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Date, location of Assurance and signature of Assurer. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The CAP forms are to be kept at least for 7 years by the
+Assurer. </p>
+<h2><a name="5">5.</a> The Assurance Officer</h2>
+<p>The Committee (board) of CAcert Inc. appoints an Assurance
+Officer
+with the following responsibilities: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Reporting to the Committee and advising on all matters to
+do with Assurance; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Training and testing of Assurers, in association with the
+Education Team; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Updating this Assurance Policy, under the process
+established by Policy on Policy (<a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php" target="_blank">PoP</a>); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Management of all Subsidiary Policies (see below) for
+Assurances, under Policy on Policy; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Managing and creating rules of detail or procedure where
+inappropriate for policies; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Incorporating rulings from Arbitration into policies,
+procedures or guidelines; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Assisting the Arbitrator in any requests; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Managing the Assurer Handbook; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Maintaining a sufficient strength in the Assurance process
+(web-of-trust) to meet the agreed needs of the Community. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<h2><a name="6">6.</a> Subsidiary Policies</h2>
+<p>The Assurance Officer manages various exceptions and additional
+processes. Each must be covered by an approved Subsidiary Policy
+(refer to Policy on Policy =&gt; CAcert Official Document COD1).
+Subsidiary Policies specify any additional tests of knowledge
+required and variations to process and documentation, within the
+general standard stated here. </p>
+<h3><a name="6.1">6.1.</a> Standard</h3>
+<p>Each Subsidiary Policy must augment and improve the general
+standards in this Assurance Policy. It is the responsibility of each
+Subsidiary Policy to describe how it maintains and improves the
+specific and overall goals. It must describe exceptions and potential
+areas of risk. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="6.2">6.2.</a> High Risk Applications</h3>
+<p>In addition to the Assurance or Experience Points ratings set
+here and in other subsidiary policies, the Assurance Officer or policies can
+designate certain applications as high risk. If so, additional
+measures may be added to the Assurance process that specifically
+address the risks.</p>
+<p>Additional measures may include:
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Additional information can be required in process of assurance: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>unique numbers of identity documents,</li>
+<li>photocopy of identity documents,</li>
+<li>photo of User,</li>
+<li>address of User.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Additional Information is to be kept by Assurer, attached to
+CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form. Assurance Points allocation by this assurance is unchanged.
+User's CAcert login account should be annotated to record type of
+additional information;</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Arbitration: </p>
+<ul>
+<li> Member to participate in Arbitration. This confirms
+their acceptance of the forum as well as trains in the process and
+import,
+</li>
+<li> Member to file Arbitration to present case. This
+allows Arbitrator as final authority;
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Additional training; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Member to be Assurer (at least 100 Assurance Points and
+passed Assurer Challenge); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Member agrees to additional specific agreement(s); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Additional checking/auditing of systems data by CAcert
+support administrators. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Applications that might attract additional measures include
+code-signing certificates and administration roles. </p>
+<h2><a name="7">7.</a> Privacy</h2>
+<p>CAcert is a "privacy" organisation, and takes the
+privacy of its Members seriously. The process maintains the security
+and privacy of both parties. </p>
+<p>Information is collected primarily to make claims within the
+certificates requested by users and to contact the Members. It is
+used secondarily for training, testing, administration and other
+internal purposes. </p>
+<p>The Member's information can be accessed under these
+circumstances: </p>
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Under Arbitrator ruling, in a duly filed dispute (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php" target="_blank">Dispute Resolution Policy</a>
+=&gt; COD7); </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>An Assurer in the process of an Assurance, as permitted on
+the CAcert Assurance Programme (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/cap.php" target="_blank">CAP</a>)
+form; </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>CAcert support administration and CAcert systems
+administration when operating under the authority of Arbitrator or
+under CAcert policy. </p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p><a href="http://validator.w3.org/check?uri=referer"><img src="/images/valid-xhtml11-blue" id="graphics2" alt="Valid XHTML 1.1" align="bottom" border="0" height="33" width="90"></a>
+</p>
+</body></html>
+
diff --git a/www/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php b/www/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5c16b4b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php
@@ -0,0 +1,512 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+
+<html>
+<head><title>CAcert Community Agreement</title></head>
+<body>
+
+
+
+
+<h3> <a name="0"> 0. </a> Introduction </h3>
+
+<p>
+This agreement is between
+you, being a registered member ("Member")
+within CAcert's community at large ("Community")
+and CAcert Incorporated ("CAcert"),
+being an operator of services to the Community.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="0.1"> 0.1 </a> Terms </h4>
+<ol><li>
+ "CAcert"
+ means CAcert Inc.,
+ a non-profit Association of Members incorporated in
+ New South Wales, Australia.
+ Note that Association Members are distinct from
+ the Members defined here.
+ </li><li>
+ "Member"
+ means you, a registered participant within CAcert's Community,
+ with an account on the website and the
+ facility to request certificates.
+ Members may be individuals ("natural persons")
+ or organisations ("legal persons").
+ </li><li>
+ "Organisation"
+ is defined under the Organisation Assurance programme,
+ and generally includes corporations and other entities
+ that become Members and become Assured.
+ </li><li>
+ "Community"
+ means all of the Members
+ that are registered by this agreement
+ and other parties by other agreements,
+ all being under CAcert's Arbitration.
+ </li><li>
+ "Non-Related Person" ("NRP"),
+ being someone who is not a
+ Member, is not part of the Community,
+ and has not registered their agreement.
+ Such people are offered the NRP-DaL
+ another agreement allowing the USE of certificates.
+ </li><li>
+ "Non-Related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence" ("NRP-DaL"),
+ another agreement that is offered to persons outside the
+ Community.
+ </li><li>
+ "Arbitration"
+ is the Community's forum for
+ resolving disputes, or jurisdiction.
+ </li><li>
+ "Dispute Resolution Policy" ("DRP" => COD7)
+ is the policy and
+ rules for resolving disputes.
+ </li><li>
+ "USE"
+ means the act by your software
+ to conduct its tasks, incorporating
+ the certificates according to software procedures.
+ </li><li>
+ "RELY"
+ means your human act in taking on a
+ risk and liability on the basis of the claim(s)
+ bound within a certificate.
+ </li><li>
+ "OFFER"
+ means the your act
+ of making available your certificate to another person.
+ Generally, you install and configure your software
+ to act as your agent and facilite this and other tasks.
+ OFFER does not imply suggestion of reliance.
+ </li><li>
+ "Issue"
+ means creation of a certificate by CAcert.
+ To create a certificate,
+ CAcert affixes a digital signature from the root
+ onto a public key and other information.
+ This act would generally bind a statement or claim,
+ such as your name, to your key.
+ </li><li>
+ "Root"
+ means CAcert's top level key,
+ used for signing certificates for Members.
+ In this document, the term includes any subroots.
+ </li><li>
+ "CAcert Official Document" ("COD" => COD3)
+ in a standard format for describing the details of
+ operation and governance essential to a certificate authority.
+ Changes are managed and controlled.
+ CODs define more technical terms.
+ See 4.2 for listing of relevant CODs.
+ </li><li>
+ "Certification Practice Statement" ("CPS" => COD6)
+ is the document that controls details
+ about operational matters within CAcert.
+</li></ol>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="1"> 1. </a> Agreement and Licence </h3>
+
+<h4> <a name="1.1"> 1.1 </a> Agreement </h4>
+
+<p>
+You and CAcert both agree to the terms and conditions
+in this agreement.
+Your agreement is given by any of
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ your signature on a form to request assurance of identity
+ ("CAP" form),
+ </li><li>
+ your request on the website
+ to join the Community and create an account,
+ </li><li>
+ your request for Organisation Assurance,
+ </li><li>
+ your request for issuing of certificates, or
+ </li><li>
+ if you USE, RELY, or OFFER
+ any certificate issued to you.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+Your agreement
+is effective from the date of the first event above
+that makes this agreement known to you.
+This Agreement
+replaces and supercedes prior agreements,
+including the NRP-DaL.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4> <a name="1.2"> 1.2 </a> Licence </h4>
+
+<p>
+As part of the Community, CAcert offers you these rights:
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ You may USE any certificates issued by CAcert.
+ </li><li>
+ You may RELY on any certificate issued by CAcert,
+ as explained and limited by CPS (COD6).
+ </li><li>
+ You may OFFER certificates issued to you by CAcert
+ to Members for their RELIANCE.
+ </li><li>
+ You may OFFER certificates issued to you by CAcert
+ to NRPs for their USE, within the general principles
+ of the Community.
+ </li><li>
+ This Licence is free of cost,
+ non-exclusive, and non-transferrable.
+</li></ol>
+
+<h4> <a name="1.3"> 1.3 </a> Your Contributions </h4>
+
+
+<p>
+You agree to a non-exclusive non-restrictive non-revokable
+transfer of Licence to CAcert for your contributions.
+That is, if you post an idea or comment on a CAcert forum,
+or email it to other Members,
+your work can be used freely by the Community for
+CAcert purposes, including placing under CAcert's licences
+for wider publication.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+You retain authorship rights, and the rights to also transfer
+non-exclusive rights to other parties.
+That is, you can still use your
+ideas and contributions outside the Community.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Note that the following exceptions override this clause:
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ Contributions to controlled documents are subject to
+ Policy on Policy ("PoP" => COD1)
+ </li><li>
+ Source code is subject to an open source licence regime.
+</li></ol>
+
+<h4> <a name="1.4"> 1.4 </a> Privacy </h4>
+
+
+<p>
+You give rights to CAcert to store, verify and process
+and publish your data in accordance with policies in force.
+These rights include shipping the data to foreign countries
+for system administration, support and processing purposes.
+Such shipping will only be done among
+CAcert Community administrators and Assurers.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Privacy is further covered in the Privacy Policy ("PP" => COD5).
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="2"> 2. </a> Your Risks, Liabilities and Obligations </h3>
+
+<p>
+As a Member, you have risks, liabilities
+and obligations within this agreement.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="2.1"> 2.1 </a> Risks </h4>
+
+<ol><li>
+ A certificate may prove unreliable.
+ </li><li>
+ Your account, keys or other security tools may be
+ lost or otherwise compromised.
+ </li><li>
+ You may find yourself subject to Arbitration
+ (DRP => COD7).
+</li></ol>
+
+<h4> <a name="2.2"> 2.2 </a> Liabilities </h4>
+
+<ol><li>
+ You are liable for any penalties
+ as awarded against you by the Arbitrator.
+ </li><li>
+ Remedies are as defined in the DRP (COD7).
+ An Arbitrator's ruling may
+ include monetary amounts, awarded against you.
+ </li><li>
+ Your liability is limited to
+ a total maximum of
+ <b>1000 Euros</b>.
+ </li><li>
+ "Foreign Courts" may assert jurisdiction.
+ These include your local courts, and are outside our Arbitration.
+ Foreign Courts will generally refer to the Arbitration
+ Act of their country, which will generally refer
+ civil cases to Arbitration.
+ The Arbitration Act will not apply to criminal cases.
+</li></ol>
+
+<h4> <a name="2.3"> 2.3 </a> Obligations </h4>
+
+<p>
+ You are obliged
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ to provide accurate information
+ as part of Assurance.
+ You give permission for verification of the information
+ using CAcert-approved methods.
+ </li><li>
+ to make no false representations.
+ </li><li>
+ to submit all your disputes to Arbitration
+ (DRP => COD7).
+</li></ol>
+
+<h4> <a name="2.4"> 2.4 </a> Principles </h4>
+
+<p>
+As a Member of CAcert, you are a member of
+the Community.
+ You are further obliged to
+ work within the spirit of the Principles
+ of the Community.
+ These are described in
+ <a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/principles.html">Principles of the Community</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="2.5"> 2.5 </a> Security </h4>
+<p>
+CAcert exists to help you to secure yourself.
+You are primarily responsible for your own security.
+Your security obligations include
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ to secure yourself and your computing platform (e.g., PC),
+ </li><li>
+ to keep your email account in good working order,
+ </li><li>
+ to secure your CAcert account
+ (e.g., credentials such as username, password),
+ </li><li>
+ to secure your private keys,
+ </li><li>
+ to review certificates for accuracy,
+ and
+ </li><li>
+ when in doubt, notify CAcert,
+ </li><li>
+ when in doubt, take other reasonable actions, such as
+ revoking certificates,
+ changing account credentials,
+ and/or generating new keys.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+Where, above, 'secure' means to protect to a reasonable
+degree, in proportion with your risks and the risks of
+others.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="3"> 3. </a> Law and Jurisdiction </h3>
+
+<h4> <a name="3.1"> 3.1 </a> Governing Law </h4>
+
+<p>
+This agreement is governed under the law of
+New South Wales, Australia,
+being the home of the CAcert Inc. Association.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="3.2"> 3.2 </a> Arbitration as Forum of Dispute Resolution </h4>
+
+<p>
+You agree, with CAcert and all of the Community,
+that all disputes arising out
+of or in connection to our use of CAcert services
+shall be referred to and finally resolved
+by Arbitration under the rules within the
+Dispute Resolution Policy of CAcert
+(DRP => COD7).
+The rules select a single Arbitrator chosen by CAcert
+from among senior Members in the Community.
+The ruling of the Arbitrator is binding and
+final on Members and CAcert alike.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In general, the jurisdiction for resolution of disputes
+is within CAcert's own forum of Arbitration,
+as defined and controlled by its own rules (DRP => COD7).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+We use Arbitration for many purposes beyond the strict
+nature of disputes, such as governance and oversight.
+A systems administrator may
+need authorisation to conduct a non-routine action,
+and Arbitration may provide that authorisation.
+Thus, you may find yourself party to Arbitration
+that is simply support actions, and you may file disputes in
+order to initiate support actions.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="3.3"> 3.3 </a> Termination </h4>
+<p>
+You may terminate this agreement by resigning
+from CAcert. You may do this at any time by
+writing to CAcert's online support forum and
+filing dispute to resign.
+All services will be terminated, and your
+certificates will be revoked.
+However, some information will continue to
+be held for certificate processing purposes.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The provisions on Arbitration survive any termination
+by you by leaving CAcert.
+That is, even if you resign from CAcert,
+you are still bound by the DRP (COD7),
+and the Arbitrator may reinstate any provision of this
+agreement or bind you to a ruling.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Only the Arbitrator may terminate this agreement with you.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="3.4"> 3.4 </a> Changes of Agreement </h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert may from time to time vary the terms of this Agreement.
+Changes will be done according to the documented CAcert policy
+for changing policies, and is subject to scrutiny and feedback
+by the Community.
+Changes will be notified to you by email to your primary address.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+If you do not agree to the changes, you may terminate as above.
+Continued use of the service shall be deemed to be agreement
+by you.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="3.5"> 3.5 </a> Communication </h4>
+
+<p>
+Notifications to CAcert are to be sent by
+email to the address
+<b>support</b> <i>at</i> CAcert.org.
+You should attach a digital signature,
+but need not do so in the event of security
+or similar urgency.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Notifications to you are sent
+by CAcert to the primary email address
+registered with your account.
+You are responsible for keeping your email
+account in good working order and able
+to receive emails from CAcert.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Arbitration is generally conducted by email.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="4"> 4. </a> Miscellaneous </h3>
+
+<h4> <a name="4.1"> 4.1 </a> Other Parties Within the Community </h4>
+
+<p>
+As well as you and other Members in the Community,
+CAcert forms agreements with third party
+vendors and others.
+Thus, such parties will also be in the Community.
+Such agreements are also controlled by the same
+policy process as this agreement, and they should
+mirror and reinforce these terms.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4> <a name="4.2"> 4.2 </a> References and Other Binding Documents </h4>
+
+<p>
+This agreement is CAcert Official Document 9 (COD9)
+and is a controlled document.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+You are also bound by
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ <a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/policy.htm">
+ Certification Practice Statement</a> (CPS => COD6).
+ </li><li>
+ <a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">
+ Dispute Resolution Policy</a> (DRP => COD7).
+ </li><li>
+ <a href="http://www.cacert.org/index.php?id=10">
+ Privacy Policy</a> (PP => COD5).
+ </li><li>
+ <a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/principles.html">
+ Principles of the Community</a>.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+Where documents are referred to as <i>=> COD x</i>,
+they are controlled documents
+under the control of Policy on Policies (COD1).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+This agreement and controlled documents above are primary,
+and may not be replaced or waived except
+by formal policy channels and by Arbitration.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="4.3"> 4.3 </a> Informative References </h4>
+
+<p>
+The governing documents are in English.
+Documents may be translated for convenience.
+Because we cannot control the legal effect of translations,
+the English documents are the ruling ones.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+You are encouraged to be familiar with the
+Assurer Handbook,
+which provides a more readable introduction for much of
+the information needed.
+The Handbook is not however an agreement, and is overruled
+by this agreement and others listed above.
+</p>
+
+<h4> <a name="4.4"> 4.4 </a> Not Covered in this Agreement </h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Intellectual Property.</b>
+This Licence does not transfer any intellectual
+property rights ("IPR") to you. CAcert asserts and
+maintains its IPR over its roots, issued certificates,
+brands, logos and other assets.
+Note that the certificates issued to you
+are CAcert's intellectual property
+and you do not have rights other than those stated.
+</p>
+
+
+</body>
+</html>
diff --git a/www/policy/CVS/Entries b/www/policy/CVS/Entries
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b5fe53c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/CVS/Entries
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php/1.1/Fri Jan 18 22:56:31 2008//
+/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php/1.2/Fri Jan 18 23:00:49 2008//
+/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php/1.1/Fri Jan 18 22:56:31 2008//
+/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php/1.2/Fri Mar 14 18:28:21 2008//
+/PolicyOnPolicy.php/1.1/Fri Mar 14 14:03:39 2008//
+/index.php/1.2/Sun Apr 6 19:45:26 2008//
+/AssurancePolicy.php/1.2/Thu Jun 25 20:09:37 2009//
+D
diff --git a/www/policy/CVS/Repository b/www/policy/CVS/Repository
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..27873cf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/CVS/Repository
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+cacert/www/policy
diff --git a/www/policy/CVS/Root b/www/policy/CVS/Root
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a363882
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/CVS/Root
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+/var/lib/cvs
diff --git a/www/policy/CertificationPracticeStatement.php b/www/policy/CertificationPracticeStatement.php
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9d16805
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/CertificationPracticeStatement.php
@@ -0,0 +1,4091 @@
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
+<html>
+<head>
+ <meta name="copyright" content="CAcert Inc http://www.cacert.org/">
+ <title>Certification Practice Statement (CPS)</title>
+
+<style type="text/css">
+<!--
+body {
+ font-family : verdana, helvetica, arial, sans-serif;
+}
+
+pre, code, kbd, tt, samp {
+ font-family : courier, monospace;
+}
+
+th {
+ text-align : left;
+}
+
+.blockpar {
+ text-indent : 2em;
+ margin-top : 0em;
+ margin-bottom : 0.5em;
+ text-align : justify;
+}
+
+.figure {
+ text-align : center;
+ color : gray;
+ margin-top : 0.5em;
+}
+
+.center {
+ text-align : center;
+}
+
+.q {
+ color : green;
+ font-weight: bold;
+ text-align: center;
+ font-style:italic;
+}
+
+.error {
+ color : red;
+ font-weight: bold;
+ text-align: center;
+ font-style:italic;
+}
+
+.change {
+ color : blue;
+ font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+a:hover {
+ color : gray;
+}
+-->
+</style>
+
+
+</head>
+<body>
+
+<h1>CAcert CPS and CP</h1>
+
+<a href="PolicyOnPolicy.html"><img src="cacert-draft.png" alt="CAcert Policy Status" height="31" width="88" style="border-style: none;" /></a><br />
+Creation date: 20060726<br />
+Status: DRAFT p20091108<br />
+<!-- $Id: CertificationPracticeStatement.php,v 1.1 2009-11-21 22:34:00 philipp Exp $ -->
+
+
+<font size="-1">
+
+<ol>
+ <li> <a href="#p1">INTRODUCTION</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p1.1">1.1. Overview</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p1.2">1.2. Document name and identification</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p1.3">1.3. PKI participants</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p1.4">1.4. Certificate usage</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p1.5">1.5. Policy administration</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p1.6">1.6. Definitions and acronyms</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li> <a href="#p2">PUBLICATION AND REPOSITORY RESPONSIBILITIES</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p2.1">2.1. Repositories</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p2.2">2.2. Publication of certification information</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p2.3">2.3. Time or frequency of publication</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p2.4">2.4. Access controls on repositories</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li> <a href="#p3">IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION (I&amp;A)</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p3.1">3.1. Naming</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p3.2">3.2. Initial Identity Verification</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p3.3">3.3. I&amp;A for Re-key Requests</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p3.4">3.4. I&amp;A for Revocation Request</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4">CERTIFICATE LIFE-CYCLE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p4.1">4.1. Certificate Application</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.2">4.2. Certificate application processing</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.3">4.3. Certificate issuance</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.4">4.4. Certificate acceptance</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.5">4.5. Key pair and certificate usage</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.6">4.6. Certificate renewal</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.7">4.7. Certificate re-key</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.8">4.8. Certificate modification</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.9">4.9. Certificate revocation and suspension</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.10">4.10. Certificate status services</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.11">4.11. End of subscription</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p4.12">4.12. Key escrow and recovery</a> </li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5">FACILITY, MANAGEMENT, AND OPERATIONAL CONTROLS</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p5.1">5.1. Physical controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.2">5.2. Procedural controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.3">5.3. Personnel controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.4">5.4. Audit logging procedures</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.5">5.5. Records archival</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.6">5.6. Key changeover</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.7">5.7. Compromise and disaster recovery</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p5.8">5.8. CA or RA termination</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6">TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROLS</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p6.1">6.1. Key pair generation and installation</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.2">6.2. Private Key Protection and Cryptographic Module Engineering Controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.3">6.3. Other aspects of key pair management</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.4">6.4. Activation data</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.5">6.5. Computer security controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.6">6.6. Life cycle technical controls</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.7">6.7. Network security controls</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p6.8">6.8. Time-stamping</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p7">CERTIFICATE, CRL, AND OCSP PROFILES</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p7.1">7.1. Certificate profile</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p7.2">7.2. CRL profile</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p7.3">7.3. OCSP profile</a> </li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p8">COMPLIANCE AUDIT AND OTHER ASSESSMENTS</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p8.1">8.1. Frequency or circumstances of assessment</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p8.2">8.2. Identity/qualifications of assessor</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p8.3">8.3. Assessor's relationship to assessed entity</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p8.4">8.4. Topics covered by assessment</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p8.5">8.5. Actions taken as a result of deficiency</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p8.6">8.6. Communication of results</a></li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9">OTHER BUSINESS AND LEGAL MATTERS</a>
+ <ul>
+ <li><a href="#p9.1">9.1. Fees</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.2">9.2. Financial responsibility</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.3">9.3. Confidentiality of business information</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.4">9.4. Privacy of personal information</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.5">9.5. Intellectual property rights</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.6">9.6. Representations and warranties</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.7">9.7. Disclaimers of warranties</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.8">9.8. Limitations of liability</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.9">9.9. Indemnities</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.10">9.10. Term and termination</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.11">9.11. Individual notices and communications with participants</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.12">9.12. Amendments</a> </li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.13">9.13. Dispute resolution provisions</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.14">9.14. Governing law</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.15">9.15. Compliance with applicable law</a></li>
+ <li><a href="#p9.16">9.16. Miscellaneous provisions</a> </li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+</ol>
+
+</font>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p1" id="p1">1. INTRODUCTION</a></h2>
+
+<h3><a name="p1.1" id="p1.1">1.1. Overview</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is the Certification Practice Statement (CPS) of
+CAcert, the Community Certification Authority (CA).
+It describes rules and procedures used by CAcert for
+operating its CA,
+and applies to all CAcert PKI Participants,
+including Assurers, Members, and CAcert itself.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p1.2" id="p1.2">1.2. Document name and identification</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+This document is the Certification Practice Statement (CPS) of CAcert.
+The CPS also fulfills the role of the Certificate Policy (CP)
+for each class of certificate.
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+ <li>
+ This document is COD6 under CAcert Official Documents numbering scheme.
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ The document is structured according to
+ Chokhani, et al,
+ <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3647.txt">RFC3647</a>,
+ <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3647#section-4">chapter 4</a>.
+ All headings derive from that Chapter.
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ It has been improved and reviewed (or will be reviewed)
+ to meet or exceed the criteria of the
+ <cite>Certificate Authority Review Checklist</cite>
+ from <i>David E. Ross</i> ("DRC")
+ and Mozilla Foundation's CA policy.
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ OID assigned to this document: 1.3.6.1.4.1.18506.4.4.x (x=approved Version)
+ (<a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers">iana.org</a>)
+ <p class="q"> .x will change to .1 in the first approved instance.</p>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ &copy; CAcert Inc. 2006-2009.
+ <!-- note that CCS policies must be controlled by CAcert Inc. -->
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ Issued under the CAcert document licence policy,
+ as and when made policy.
+ See <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/DocumentLicence">
+ PolicyDrafts/DocumentLicence</a>.
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> The cited page discusses 2 options: CCau Attribute-Share-alike and GNU Free Document License. Refer to that. </li>
+ <li> Note that the noun Licence in Australian English has two Cs. The verb License is spelt the same way as American English. </li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ Earlier notes were written by Christian Barmala
+ in a document placed under GNU Free Document License
+ and under FSF copyright.
+ However this clashed with the control provisions of
+ Configuration-Control Specification
+ (COD2) within Audit criteria.
+ </li>
+ <li>
+ <span class="q">In this document:</span>
+ <ul>
+ <li>
+ <span class="q">green text</span>
+ refers to questions that seek answers,
+ </li><li>
+ <span class="error">red text</span>
+ refers to probably audit fails or serious errors.
+ </li><li>
+ <span class="change">blue text</span>
+ refers to changes written after the document got seriously reviewed.
+ </ul>
+ <span class="q">
+ None is to be considered part of the policy,
+ and they should disappear in the DRAFT
+ and must disappear in the POLICY.
+ </span>
+ </li>
+<!--
+ <li>
+ Some content is incorporated under
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/license.html">Creative Commons license</a> -->
+<!-- from <a href="http://xkcd.com/">xkcd.com</a>. -->
+ 198 177 515
+ </li>
+-->
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+The CPS is an authoritive document,
+and rules other documents
+except where explicitly deferred to.
+See also <a href="#p1.5.1">1.5.1 Organisation Administering the Document</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p1.3" id="p1.3">1.3. PKI participants</a></h3>
+<p>
+The CA is legally operated by CAcert Incorporated,
+an Association registered in 2002 in
+New South Wales, Australia,
+on behalf of the wider Community of Members of CAcert.
+The Association details are at the
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/CAcertIncorporated">CAcert wiki</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+CAcert is a Community formed of Members who agree to the
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">
+CAcert Community Agreement</a>.
+The CA is technically operated by the Community,
+under the direction of the Board of CAcert Incorporated.
+(The Members of the Community are not to be confused
+with the <i>Association Members</i>, which latter are
+not referred to anywhere in this CPS.)
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.3.1" id="p1.3.1">1.3.1. Certification authorities</a></h4>
+<p>
+CAcert does not issue certificates to external
+intermediate CAs under the present CPS.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.3.2" id="p1.3.2">1.3.2. Registration authorities</a></h4>
+<p>
+Registration Authorities (RAs) are controlled under Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.3.3" id="p1.3.3">1.3.3. Subscribers</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert issues certificates to Members only.
+Such Members then become Subscribers.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p1.3.4" id="p1.3.4">1.3.4. Relying parties</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+A relying party is a Member,
+having agreed to the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>),
+who, in the act of using a CAcert certificate,
+makes a decision on the basis of that certificate.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.3.5" id="p1.3.5">1.3.5. Other participants</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Member.</b>
+Membership of the Community is as defined in the
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>.
+Only Members may RELY or may become Subscribers.
+Membership is free.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Arbitrator.</b>
+A senior and experienced Member of the CAcert Community
+who resolves disputes between Members, including ones
+of certificate reliance, under
+Dispute Resolution Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">COD7</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Vendor.</b>
+Software suppliers who integrate the root certificates of CAcert
+into their software also assume a proxy role of Relying Parties,
+and are subject to another licence.
+<span class="q">
+At the time of writing, the
+"3rd Party Vendor - Disclaimer and Licence"
+is being worked upon, but is neither approved nor offered.
+</span>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Non-Related Persons</b> (NRPs).
+These are users of browsers and similar software who are
+unaware of the CAcert certificates they may use, and
+are unaware of the ramifications of usage.
+Their relationship with CAcert
+is described by the
+Non-related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>).
+No other rights nor relationship is implied or offered.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p1.4" id="p1.4">1.4. Certificate usage</a></h3>
+
+<p>CAcert serves as issuer of certificates for
+individuals, businesses, governments, charities,
+associations, churches, schools,
+non-governmental organisations or other groups.
+CAcert certificates are intended for low-cost
+community applications especially where volunteers can
+become Assurers and help CAcert to help the Community.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Types of certificates and their appropriate and
+corresponding applications are defined in
+<a href="#p1.4.1">&sect;1.4.1</a>.
+Prohibited applications are defined in <a href="#p1.4.2">&sect;1.4.2</a>.
+Specialist uses may be agreed by contract or within
+a specific environment, as described in
+<a href="#p1.4.4">&sect;1.4.4</a>.
+Note also the
+unreliable applications in
+<a href="#p1.4.3">&sect;1.4.3</a>
+and risks, liabilities and obligations in
+<a href="#p9">&sect;9</a>.
+</p>
+
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td colspan="2"><center><i>Type</center></i></td>
+ <td colspan="2"><center><i>Appropriate Certificate uses</center></i></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>General</th>
+ <th>Protocol</th>
+ <th><center>Description</center></th>
+ <th><center>Comments</center></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td rowspan="2"><center>Server</center></td>
+ <td> TLS </td>
+ <td> web server encryption </td>
+ <td> enables encryption </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td> embedded </td>
+ <td> embedded server authentication </td>
+ <td> mail servers, IM-servers </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td rowspan="4"><center>Client</center></td>
+ <td> S/MIME </td>
+ <td> email encryption </td>
+ <td> "digital signatures" employed in S/MIME
+ are not legal / human signatures,
+ but instead enable the encryption mode of S/MIME </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td> TLS </td>
+ <td> client authentication </td>
+ <td> the nodes must be secure </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td> TLS </td>
+ <td> web based signature applications </td>
+ <td> the certificate authenticates only. See <a href="#p1.4.3">&sect;1.4.3</a>. </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td> &quot;Digital Signing&quot; </td>
+ <td> for human signing over documents </td>
+ <td> Only within a wider application and rules
+ such as by separate policy,
+ as agreed by contract, etc.
+ See <a href="#p1.4.4">&sect;1.4.4</a>.
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Code</center></td>
+ <td> Authenticode, ElfSign, Java </td>
+ <td> Code Signing </td>
+ <td> Signatures on packages are evidence of their Membership and indicative of Identity </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>PGP</center></td>
+ <td> OpenPGP </td>
+ <td> Key Signing </td>
+ <td> Signatures on Member Keys are evidence of their Membership and indicative of Identity </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Special</center></td>
+ <td> X.509 </td>
+ <td> OCSP, Timestamping </td>
+ <td> Only available to CAcert Systems Administrators, as controlled by Security Policy </td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 1.4. Types of Certificate</span>
+</center>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.4.1" id="p1.4.1">1.4.1. Appropriate certificate uses</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+General uses.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ CAcert server certificates can be used to enable encryption
+ protection in web servers.
+ Suitable applications include webmail and chat forums.
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert server certificates can be used to enable encryption
+ in SSL/TLS links in embedded protocols such as mail servers
+ and IM-servers.
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert client certificates can be used to enable encryption
+ protection in email clients.
+ (See <a href="#p1.4.3">&sect;1.4.3</a> for caveat on signatures.)
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert client certificates can be used to replace password-based
+ authentication to web servers.
+ </li><li>
+ OpenPGP keys with CAcert signatures can be used
+ to encrypt and sign files and emails,
+ using software compatible with OpenPGP.
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert client certificates can be used in web-based
+ authentication applications.
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert code signing certificates can be used to sign code
+ for distribution to other people.
+ </li><li>
+ Time stamping can be used to attach a time record
+ to a digital document.
+</li></ul>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p1.4.2" id="p1.4.2">1.4.2. Prohibited certificate uses</a></h4>
+<p>
+CAcert certificates are not designed, intended, or authorised for
+the following applications:
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ Use or resale as control equipment in hazardous circumstances
+ or for uses requiring fail-safe performance such as the operation
+ of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or communication systems,
+ air traffic control systems, or weapons control systems,
+ where failure could lead directly to death, personal injury,
+ or severe environmental damage.
+</li></ul>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.4.3" id="p1.4.3">1.4.3. Unreliable Applications</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert certificates are not designed nor intended for use in
+the following applications, and may not be reliable enough
+for these applications:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ <b>Signing within Protocols.</b>
+ Digital signatures made by CAcert certificates carry
+ <u>NO default legal or human meaning</u>.
+ See <a href="#p9.15.1">&sect;9.15.1</a>.
+ Especially, protocols such as S/MIME commonly will automatically
+ apply digital signatures as part of their protocol needs.
+ The purpose of the cryptographic signature in S/MIME
+ and similar protocols is limited by default to strictly
+ protocol security purposes:
+ to provide some confirmation that a familiar certificate
+ is in use, to enable encryption, and to ensure the integrity
+ of the email in transit.
+</li><li>
+ <b>Non-repudiation applications.</b>
+ Non-repudiation is not to be implied from use of
+ CAcert certificates. Rather, certificates may
+ provide support or evidence of actions, but that
+ evidence is testable in any dispute.
+</li><li>
+ <b>Ecommerce applications.</b>
+ Financial transactions or payments or valuable e-commerce.
+</li><li>
+ Use of anonymous (Class 1 or Member SubRoot) certificates
+ in any application that requires or expects identity.
+</li></ul>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/341/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/1337_part_1.png"> </a> </center> -->
+
+<h4><a name="p1.4.4" id="p1.4.4">1.4.4. Limited certificate uses</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+By contract or within a specific environment
+(e.g. internal to a company),
+CAcert Members are permitted to use Certificates
+for higher security, customised or experimental applications.
+Any such usage, however, is limited to such entities
+and these entities take on the whole responsible for
+any harm or liability caused by such usage.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+ <b>Digital signing applications.</b>
+ CAcert client certificates
+ may be used by Assured Members in
+ applications that provide or support the human signing of documents
+ (known here as "digital signing").
+ This must be part of a wider framework and set of rules.
+ Usage and reliance
+ must be documented either under a separate CAcert digital signing
+ policy or other external regime agreed by the parties.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.4.5" id="p1.4.5">1.4.5. Roots and Names</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Named Certificates.</b>
+Assured Members may be issued certificates
+with their verified names in the certificate. In this role, CAcert
+operates and supports a network of Assurers who verify the
+identity of the Members.
+All Names are verified, either by Assurance or another defined
+method under policy (c.f. Organisations).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Anonymous Certificates.</b>
+Members can be issued certificates that are anonymous,
+which is defined as the certificate with no Name included,
+or a shared name such as "Community Member".
+These may be considered to be somewhere between Named certificates
+and self-signed certificates. They have serial numbers in them
+which is ultimately traceable via dispute to a Member, but
+reliance is undefined.
+In this role, CAcert provides the
+infrastructure, saving the Members from managing a difficult
+and messy process in order to get manufactured certificates.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Psuedonymous Certificates.</b>
+Note that CAcert does not currently issue pseudonymous certificates,
+being those with a name chosen by the Member and not verifiable
+according to documents.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Advanced Certificates.</b>
+Members who are as yet unassured are not permitted to create
+advanced forms such as wildcard or subjectAltName
+certificates.
+</p>
+
+
+<p>
+<b> Roots.</b>
+The <span class="q"> (new) </span> CAcert root layout is as below.
+These roots are pending Audit,
+and will be submitted to vendors via the (Top-level) Root.
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ <b>(Top-level) Root.</b>
+ Used to sign on-line CAcert SubRoots only.
+ This Root is kept offline.
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Member SubRoot.</b>
+ For Community Members who are new and unassured (some restrictions exist).
+ Reliance is undefined.
+ (Replacement for the Class 1 root, matches "Domain Validation" type.)
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Assured SubRoot.</b>
+ Only available for Assured individual Members,
+ intended to sign certificates with Names.
+ Suitable for Reliance under this and other policies.
+ Approximates the type known as Individual Validation.
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Organisation SubRoot.</b>
+ Only available for Assured Organisation Members.
+ Suitable for Reliance under this and other policies.
+ Approximates the type known as Organisational Validation.
+
+</li></ul>
+
+
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td></td>
+ <td colspan="5"><center><i>Level of Assurance</center></i></td>
+ <th> </th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th></th>
+ <th colspan="2"><center> Members &dagger; </center></th>
+ <th colspan="2"><center> Assured Members</center></th>
+ <th colspan="1"><center> Assurers </center></th>
+ <th colspan="1"><center> </center></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><i>Class of Root</i></td>
+ <th>Anon</th>
+ <td>Name</td>
+ <td>Anon</td>
+ <th>Name</th>
+ <td>Name+Anon</td>
+ <td colspan="1"><center><i>Remarks</center></i></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Top level<br><big><b>Root</b></big></center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &bull; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &bull; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &bull; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &bull; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &bull; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> Signs other CAcert SubRoots only. </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center><big><b>Member</b></big><br>SubRoot</center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> &dagger; For Members meeting basic checks in <a href="#p4.2.2">&sect;4.2.2</a><br>(Reliance is undefined.) </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center><big><b>Assured</b></big><br>SubRoot</center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> Assured Members only.<br>Fully intended for reliance. </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center><big><b>Organisation</b></big><br>SubRoot</center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> Assured Organisation Members only.<br>Fully intended for reliance. </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>Expiry of Certificates</th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>6 months</center></th>
+ <td colspan="3"><center>24 months</center></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>Types</th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>client, server</center></th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>wildcard, subjectAltName</center></th>
+ <td colspan="1"><center>code-signing</center></th>
+ <td> (Inclusive to the left.) </td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 1.4.5.b Certificate under Audit Roots</span>
+</center>
+
+
+<p class="q">
+Following information on OLD roots here for
+descriptive and historical purposes only.
+When CPS goes to DRAFT, this needs to be
+converted into a short summary of the way
+OLD roots are used and its relationship to
+this CPS. E.g., "OLD roots are used for
+testing and other purposes outside this CPS."
+Because ... they still exist, and people will
+look at the CPS to figure it out.
+</p>
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td></td>
+ <td colspan="4"><center><i>Level of Assurance</center></i></td>
+ <th> </th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th></th>
+ <th colspan="2"><center>Members</center></th>
+ <th colspan="2"><center>Assured Members</center></th>
+ <th colspan="1"><center> </center></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><i>Class of Root</i></td>
+ <th>Anonymous</th>
+ <td>Named</td>
+ <td>Anonymous</td>
+ <th>Named</th>
+ <td colspan="1"><center><i>Remarks</center></i></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Class<br><big><b>1</b></big></center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> Available for all Members,<br>reliance is undefined.</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Class<br><big><b>3</b></big></center></td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center> </th>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> <center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center> </td>
+ <td> Assured Members only.<br> Intended for Reliance. </center> </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>Expiry of Certificates</th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>6 months</center></th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>24 months</center></th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>Types available</th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>simple only</center></th>
+ <td colspan="2"><center>wildcard, subjectAltName</center></th>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 1.4.5. Certificates under Old Roots - <b>Audit Fail</b> </span>
+</center>
+
+<p>
+<b> Old Roots.</b>
+The old CAcert root layout is as below. These roots are <b>Audit Fail</b>
+and will only be used where new roots do not serve:
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ (old) <b>Class 1 root.</b>
+ Used primarily for certificates with no names and by
+ unassured Members.
+ For compatibility only,
+ Assured Members may also use this root.
+ </li><li>
+ (old) <b>Class 3 root.</b>
+ Used primarily for certificates including the names
+ of Assured Members.
+ Signed by Class 1 root.
+ Members can decide to rely on these
+ certificates for Assured Members
+ by selecting the Class 3 root for
+ Assured Members as trust anchor.
+</li></ul>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> Current Mozilla position has drifted from Class 1,2,3s to DV, IV+OV and EV posture. Except, the actual posture is either unstated or difficult to fathom.</li>
+ <li> scheme for future roots is at <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Roots/NewRootsTaskForce">NewRootsTaskForce</a>.</li>
+ <li>END OLD ROOTS </li>
+ </ul>
+
+<h3><a name="p1.5" id="p1.5">1.5. Policy administration</a></h3>
+
+<p>See <a href="#p1.2">1.2 Document Name and Identification</a>
+ for general scope of this document.</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.5.1" id="p1.5.1">1.5.1. Organization administering the document</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+This document is administered by the policy group of
+the CAcert Community under Policy on Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php">COD1</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.5.2" id="p1.5.2">1.5.2. Contact person</a></h4>
+<p>
+For questions including about this document:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+ <li>Join the policy group, by means of the discussion forum at
+ <a href="http://lists.cacert.org/mailman/listinfo">
+ lists.cacert.org</a> . </li>
+ <li>Send email to &lt; support AT cacert DOT org &gt; </li>
+ <li>IRC: irc.cacert.org #CAcert (ssl port 7000, non-ssl port 6667)</li>
+</ul>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.5.3" id="p1.5.3">1.5.3. Person determining CPS suitability for the policy</a></h4>
+<p>
+This CPS and all other policy documents are managed by
+the policy group, which is a group of Members of the
+Community found at policy forum. See discussion forums above.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.5.4" id="p1.5.4">1.5.4. CPS approval procedures</a></h4>
+<p>
+CPS is controlled and updated according to the
+Policy on Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php">COD1</a>)
+which is part of
+Configuration-Control Specification (COD2).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In brief, the policy forum prepares and discusses.
+After a last call, the document moves to DRAFT status
+for a defined period.
+If no challenges have been received in the defined period,
+it moves to POLICY status.
+The process is modelled after some elements of
+the RFC process by the IETF.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p1.5.5" id="p1.5.5">1.5.5 CPS updates</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+As per above.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p1.6" id="p1.6">1.6. Definitions and acronyms</a></h3>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_cert" id="d_cert">Certificate</a></b>.
+ A certificate is a piece of cryptographic data used
+ to validate certain statements, especially those of
+ identity and membership.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_cacert" id="d_cacert">CAcert</a></b>.
+ CAcert is a Community certificate authority as defined under
+ <a href="#p1.2">&sect;1.2 Identification</a>.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_member" id="d_member">Member</a></b>.
+ Everyone who agrees to the
+ CAcert Community Agreement
+ (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>).
+ This generally implies having an account registered
+ at CAcert and making use of CAcert's data, programs or services.
+ A Member may be an individual ("natural person")
+ or an organisation (sometimes, "legal person").
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_community" id="d_community">Community</a></b>.
+ The group of Members who agree to the
+ CAcert Community Agreement
+ (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>)
+ or equivalent agreements.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_unassured" id="d_unassured">Unassured Member</a></b>.
+ A Member who has not yet been Assured.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_subscriber" id="d_subscriber">Subscriber</a></b>.
+ A Member who requests and receives a certificate.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_assured" id="d_assured">Assured Member</a></b>.
+ A Member whose identity has been sufficiently
+ verified by Assurers or other
+ approved methods under Assurance Policy.</p>
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_assurer" id="d_assurer">Assurer</a></b>.
+ An Assured Member who is authorised under Assurance Policy
+ to verify the identity of other Members.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_name" id="d_name">Name</a></b>.
+ As defined in the
+ Assurance Policy
+ (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>),
+ to describe a name of a Member
+ that is verified by the Assurance process.
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_oadmin" id="d_oadmin">Organisation Administrator</a></b>.
+ ("O-Admin")
+ An Assurer who is authorised to act for an Organisation.
+ The O-Admin is authorised by an organisation
+ to vouch for the identity of other users of the organisation.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_org_ass" id="d_org_ass">Organisation Assurer</a></b>.
+ An Assurer who is authorised to conduct assurances on
+ organisations.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_user" id="d_user">Non-Related Persons</a></b>.
+ ("NRPs")
+ are general users of browsers and similar software.
+ The NRPs are generally unaware of
+ CAcert or the certificates that they may use, and
+ are unaware of the ramifications of usage.
+ They are not permitted to RELY, but may USE, under the
+ Non-Related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>).
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="rel" id="d_reliance">Reliance</a></b>.
+ An industry term referring to
+ the act of making a decision, including taking a risk,
+ which decision is in part or in whole
+ informed or on the basis of the contents of a certificate.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="rel" id="rel">Relying Party</a></b>.
+ An industry term refering to someone who relies
+ (that is, makes decisions or takes risks)
+ in part or in whole on a certificate.
+</p>
+<p>
+ <b>Subscriber Naming.</b>
+ The term used in this CPS to
+ describe all naming data within a certificate.
+ Approximately similar terms from Industry such as
+ "Subject naming" and "Distinguished Name"
+ are not used here.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="ver" id="d_verification">Verification</a></b>.
+ An industry term referring to
+ the act of checking and controlling
+ the accuracy and utility of a single claim.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="ver" id="d_validation">Validation</a></b>.
+ An industry term referring to the process of
+ inspecting and verifying the information and
+ subsidiary claims behind a claim.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="rel" id="rel">Usage</a></b>.
+ The event of allowing a certificate to participate in
+ a protocol, as decided and facilitated by a user's software.
+ Generally, Usage does not require significant input, if any,
+ on the part of the user.
+ This defers all decisions to the user software,
+ thus elevating the software as user's only and complete
+ Validation Authority or Agent.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="drel" id="drel">CAcert Relying Party</a></b>.
+ CAcert Members who make decisions based in part or in whole
+ on a certificate issued by CAcert.
+ Only CAcert Members are permitted to Rely on CAcert certificates,
+ subject to the CAcert Community Agreement.
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="ddst" id="ddst">Vendors</a></b>.
+ Non-members who distribute CAcert's root or intermediate certificates
+ in any way, including but not limited to delivering these
+ certificates with their products, e.g. browsers, mailers or servers.
+ Vendors are covered under a separate licence.
+ <span class="q"> As of the moment, this licence is not written.</span>
+</p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_ccs" id="d_ccs">Configuration-Control Specification</a></b> "CCS".
+ The audit criteria that controls this CPS.
+ The CCS is documented in COD2, itself a controlled document under CCS.
+</p>
+<p>
+<p>
+<b><a name="d_cod" id="d_cod">CAcert Official Document</a></b> (COD).
+ Controlled Documents that are part of the CCS.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p2" id="p2">2. PUBLICATION AND REPOSITORY RESPONSIBILITIES</a></h2>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p2.1" id="p2.1">2.1. Repositories</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert operates no repositories in the sense
+of lookup for non-certificate-related information
+for the general public.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Under the Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>),
+there are means for Members to search, retrieve
+and verify certain data about themselves and others.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p2.2" id="p2.2">2.2. Publication of certification information</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert publishes:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+ <li>A repository of CRLs. An OCSP responder is in operation.</li>
+ <li>The root certificate and intermediate certificates.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+CAcert does not expressly publish information on issued certificates.
+However, due to the purpose of certificates, and the essential
+public nature of Names and email addresses, all information within
+certificates is presumed to be public and published, once
+issued and delivered to the Member.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p2.3" id="p2.3">2.3. Time or frequency of publication</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Root and Intermediate Certificates and CRLs are
+made available on issuance.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p2.4" id="p2.4">2.4. Access controls on repositories</a></h3>
+<p> No stipulation. </p>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p3" id="p3">3. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION</a></h2>
+
+<h3><a name="p3.1" id="p3.1">3.1. Naming</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.1" id="p3.1.1">3.1.1. Types of names</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Client Certificates.</b>
+The Subscriber Naming consists of:
+</p>
+<ul>
+ <li><tt>subjectAltName=</tt>
+ One, or more, of the Subscriber's verified email addresses,
+ in rfc822Name format.
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li>SSO in subjectAltName?.</li>
+ </ul>
+ <li><tt>EmailAddress=</tt>
+ One, or more, of the Subscriber's verified email addresses.
+ This is deprecated under
+ RFC5280 <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280#section-4.2.1.6">4
+.1.2.6</a>
+ and is to be phased out. Also includes a SHA1 hash of a random number if
+ the member selects SSO (Single Sign On ID) during submission of CSR.
+ </li>
+ <li><tt>CN=</tt> The common name takes its value from one of:
+ <ul><li>
+ For all Members,
+ the string "<tt>CAcert WoT Member</tt>" may be used for
+ anonymous certificates.
+ </li><li>
+ For individual Members,
+ a Name of the Subscriber,
+ as Assured under AP.
+ </li><li>
+ For Organisation Members,
+ an organisation-chosen name,
+ as verified under OAP.
+ </li></ul>
+</ul>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> <a href="http://bugs.cacert.org/view.php?id=672"> bug 672</a> filed on subjectAltName.</li>
+ <li> O-Admin must verify as per <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDecisions">p20081016</a>. </li>
+ <li> it is a wip for OAP to state how this is done. </li>
+ <li> curiously, (RFC5280) verification is only mandated for subjectAltName not subject field. </li>
+ <li> what Directory String is used in above? UTF8String is specified by RFC52804.1.2.6? is this important for the CPS to state?</li>
+ </ul>
+
+<p>
+<b>Individual Server Certificates.</b>
+The Subscriber Naming consists of:
+</p>
+<ul>
+ <li><tt>CN=</tt>
+ The common name is the host name out of a domain
+ for which the Member is a domain master.
+ </li> <li>
+ <tt>subjectAltName=</tt>
+ Additional host names for which the Member
+ is a domain master may be added to permit the
+ certificate to serve multiple domains on one IP number.
+ </li> <li>
+ All other fields are optional and must either match
+ the CN or they must be empty
+</li> </ul>
+
+<p>
+<b>Certificates for Organisations.</b>
+In addition to the above, the following applies:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+ <li><tt>OU=</tt>
+ organizationalUnitName (set by O-Admin, must be verified by O-Admin).</li>
+ <li><tt>O=</tt>
+ organizationName is the fixed name of the Organisation.</li>
+ <li><tt>L=</tt>
+ localityName</li>
+ <li><tt>ST=</tt>
+ stateOrProvinceName</li>
+ <li><tt>C=</tt>
+ countryName</li>
+ <li><tt>contact=</tt>
+ EMail Address of Contact.
+ <!-- not included in RFC5280 4.1.2.4 list, but list is not restricted -->
+ </li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+Except for the OU and CN, fields are taken from the Member's
+account and are as verified by the Organisation Assurance process.
+Other Subscriber information that is collected and/or retained
+does not go into the certificate.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.2" id="p3.1.2">3.1.2. Need for names to be meaningful</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Each Member's Name (<tt>CN=</tt> field)
+is assured under the Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>)
+or subsidiary policies (such as Organisation Assurance Policy).
+Refer to those documents for meanings and variations.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Anonymous certificates have the same <code>subject</code>
+field common name.
+See <a href="#p1.4.5">&sect;1.4.5.</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Email addresses are verified according to
+<a href="#p4.2.2">&sect;4.2.2.</a>
+</p>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/327/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/exploits_of_a_mom.png"> </a> </center> -->
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.3" id="p3.1.3">3.1.3. Anonymity or pseudonymity of subscribers</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+See <a href="#p1.4.5">&sect;1.4.5</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.4" id="p3.1.4">3.1.4. Rules for interpreting various name forms</a></h4>
+<p>
+Interpretation of Names is controlled by the Assurance Policy,
+is administered by means of the Member's account,
+and is subject to change by the Arbitrator.
+Changes to the interpretation by means of Arbitration
+should be expected as fraud (e.g., phishing)
+may move too quickly for policies to fully document rules.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.5" id="p3.1.5">3.1.5. Uniqueness of names</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Uniqueness of Names within certificates is not guaranteed.
+Each certificate has a unique serial number which maps
+to a unique account, and thus maps to a unique Member.
+See the Assurance Statement within Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Domain names and email address
+can only be registered to one Member.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.6" id="p3.1.6">3.1.6. Recognition, authentication, and role of trademarks</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Organisation Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php">COD11</a>)
+controls issues such as trademarks where applicable.
+A trademark can be disputed by filing a dispute.
+See
+<a href="#adr">&sect;9.13</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.1.7" id="p3.1.7">3.1.7. International Domain Names</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Certificates containing International Domain Names, being those containing a
+ACE prefix (<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3490#section-5">RFC3490
+Section 5</a>), will only be issued to domains satisfying one or more
+of the following conditions:
+<ul>
+<li>The Top Level Domain (TLD) Registrar associated with the domain has a policy
+that has taken measures to prevent two homographic domains being registered to
+different entities down to an accepted level.
+</li>
+<li>Domains contain only code points from a single unicode character script,
+excluding the "Common" script, with the additionally allowed numberic
+characters [0-9], and an ACSII hyphen '-'.
+</li>
+</ul>
+</p>
+
+<p>Email address containing International Domain Names in the domain portion of
+the email address will also be required to satisfy one of the above conditions.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The following is a list of accepted TLD Registrars:
+ <table>
+
+ <tr>
+ <td>.ac</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.ac/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.ac/pdf/AC-IDN-Policy.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.ar</td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.ar/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.ar/616.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.at</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.at/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.at/en/service/legal_information/registration_guidelines/">Policy</a> (<a href="http://www.nic.at/en/service/technical_information/idn/charset_converter/">character list</a>)</td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.biz</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.neustarregistry.biz/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.neustarregistry.biz/products/idns">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.br</td>
+ <td><a href="http://registro.br/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://registro.br/faq/faq6.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.cat</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.domini.cat/">Registry</a></td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.domini.cat/normativa/en_normativa_registre.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.ch</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.switch.ch/id/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.switch.ch/id/terms/agb.html#anhang1">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <td>.cl</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.cl/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.cl/CL-IDN-policy.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.cn</td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.cnnic.net.cn/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3743.html">Policy</a> (JET Guidelines)</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.de</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.denic.de/">Registry</a></td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.denic.de/en/richtlinien.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.dk</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.dk-hostmaster.dk/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.dk-hostmaster.dk/index.php?id=151">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <td>.es</td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.es/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.es/media/2008-12/1228818323935.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.fi</td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.ficora.fi/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.ficora.fi/en/index/palvelut/fiverkkotunnukset/aakkostenkaytto.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.gr</td>
+ <td><a href="https://grweb.ics.forth.gr/english/index.html">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="https://grweb.ics.forth.gr/english/ENCharacterTable1.jsp">Policy</a></td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.hu</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.domain.hu/domain/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.domain.hu/domain/English/szabalyzat.html">Policy</a> (section 2.1.2)</td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <td>.info</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.afilias.info/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.afilias.info/register/idn/">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.io</td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.io">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.io/IO-IDN-Policy.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.ir</td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.ir/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.ir/IDN">Policy</a></td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.is</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.isnic.is/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.isnic.is/english/domain/rules.php">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.jp</td>
+ <td><a href="http://jprs.co.jp/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/idn/jp-japanese.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.kr</td>
+ <td><a href="http://domain.nic.or.kr/">Registry</a></td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3743.html">Policy</a> (JET Guidelines)</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.li</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.switch.ch/id/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.switch.ch/id/terms/agb.html#anhang1">Policy</a> (managed by .ch registry)</td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.lt</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.domreg.lt/public?pg=&sp=&loc=en">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.domreg.lt/public?pg=8A7FB6&sp=idn&loc=en">Policy</a> (<a href="http://www.domreg.lt/static/doc/public/idn_symbols-en.pdf">character list</a>)</td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.museum</td>
+ <td><a href="http://about.museum/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://about.museum/idn/idnpolicy.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.no</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.norid.no/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.norid.no/domeneregistrering/veiviser.en.html">Policy</a> (section 4)</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.org</td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.pir.org/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://pir.org/PDFs/ORG-Extended-Characters-22-Jan-07.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.pl</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nask.pl/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.dns.pl/IDN/idn-registration-policy.txt">Policy</a></td>
+
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.pr</td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.pr/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="https://www.nic.pr/idn_rules.asp">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.se</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic-se.se/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.iis.se/en/domaner/internationaliserad-doman-idn/">Policy</a> (<a href="http://www.iis.se/docs/teckentabell-03.pdf">character list</a>)</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.sh</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.sh">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.sh/SH-IDN-Policy.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.th</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.thnic.or.th/">Registry</a></td>
+
+ <td><a href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/idn/th-thai.html">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>.tm</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.tm">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.nic.tm/TM-IDN-Policy.pdf">Policy</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <td>.tw</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.twnic.net.tw/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3743.html">Policy</a> (JET Guidelines)</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+
+ <td>.vn</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.vnnic.net.vn/">Registry</a></td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.vnnic.vn/english/5-6-300-2-2-04-20071115.htm">Policy</a> (<a href="http://vietunicode.sourceforge.net/tcvn6909.pdf">character list</a>)</td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+This criteria will apply to the email address and server host name fields for all certificate types.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The CAcert Inc. Board has the authority to decide to add or remove accepted TLD Registrars on this list.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p3.2" id="p3.2">3.2. Initial Identity Verification</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Identity verification is controlled by the
+<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/AssurancePolicy.html">
+Assurance Policy</a> (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+The reader is refered to the Assurance Policy,
+the following is representative and brief only.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.1" id="p3.2.1">3.2.1. Method to prove possession of private key</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert uses industry-standard techniques to
+prove the possession of the private key.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+For X.509 server certificates,
+the stale digital signature of the CSR is verified.
+For X.509 client certificates for "Netscape" browsers,
+SPKAC uses a challenge-response protocol
+to check the private key dynamically.
+For X.509 client certificates for "explorer" browsers,
+ActiveX uses a challenge-response protocol
+to check the private key dynamically.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.2" id="p3.2.2">3.2.2. Authentication of Individual Identity</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Agreement.</b>
+An Internet user becomes a Member by agreeing to the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>)
+and registering an account on the online website.
+During the registration process Members are asked to
+supply information about themselves:
+</p>
+ <ul>
+ <li>A valid working email.
+ </li>
+ <li>Full Name and Date of Birth such as is
+ found on Identity documents.
+ </li>
+ <li>Personal Questions used only for Password Retrieval.</li>
+ </ul>
+
+<p>
+The online account establishes the method of authentication
+for all service requests such as certificates.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Assurance.</b>
+Each Member is assured according to Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/364/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/responsible_behavior.png"> </a> </center> -->
+
+
+
+<p>
+<b>Certificates.</b>
+Based on the total number of Assurance Points
+that a Member (Name) has, the Member
+can get different levels of certificates.
+See <a href="#p1.4.5">&sect;1.4.5</a>.
+See Table 3.2.b.
+When Members have 50 or more points, they
+become <i>Assured Members</i> and may then request
+certificates that state their Assured Name(s).
+</p>
+
+
+<br><br>
+<center>
+
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <th>Assurance Points</th>
+ <th>Level</th>
+ <th>Service</th>
+ <th>Comments</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>0</td>
+ <td>Unassured Member</td>
+ <td>Anonymous</td>
+ <td>Certificates with no Name, under Class 1 Root. Limited to 6 months expiry.</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>1-49</td>
+ <td>Unassured Member</td>
+ <td>Anonymous</td>
+ <td>Certificates with no Name under Member SubRoot. Limited to 6 months expiry.</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td rowspan="1">50-99</td>
+ <td>Assured Member</td>
+ <td>Verified</td>
+ <td>Certificates with Verified Name for S/MIME, web servers, "digital signing."
+ Expiry after 24 months is available.</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td rowspan="2">100++</td>
+ <td rowspan="2">Assurer</td>
+ <td>Code-signing</td>
+ <td>Can create Code-signing certificates </td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 3.2.b - How Assurance Points are used in Certificates</span>
+
+</center>
+<br>
+
+
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.3" id="p3.2.3">3.2.3. Authentication of organization identity</a></h4>
+
+
+<p>
+Verification of organisations is delegated by
+the Assurance Policy to the
+Organisation Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php">COD11</a>).
+The reader is refered to the Organisation Assurance Policy,
+the following is representative and brief only.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Organisations present special challenges.
+The Assurance process for Organisations is
+intended to permit the organisational Name to
+appear in certificates.
+The process relies heavily on the Individual
+process described above.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Organisation Assurance achieves the standard
+stated in the OAP, briefly presented here:
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ the organisation exists,
+ </li><li>
+ the organisation name is correct and consistent,
+ </li><li>
+ signing rights: requestor can sign on behalf of the organisation, and
+ </li><li>
+ the organisation has agreed to the terms of the
+ CAcert Community Agreement
+ (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>),
+ and is therefore subject to Arbitration.
+</li></ol>
+
+ <ul class="error">
+ <li> As of the current time of writing, OA lacks critical documentation and there are bugs identified with no response.</li>
+ <li> <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/OrganisationAssurance">documented bugs</a>. </li>
+ <li> Therefore Organisations will not participate in the current audit cycle of roots. </li>
+ <li> See <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/OrganisationAssurance">wiki</a> for any progress on this. </li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.4" id="p3.2.4">3.2.4. Non-verified subscriber information</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+All information in the certificate is verified,
+see Relying Party Statement, &sect;4.5.2.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.5" id="p3.2.5">3.2.5. Validation of authority</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The authorisation to obtain a certificate is established as follows:
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Addresses.</b>
+The member claims authority over a domain or email address
+when adding the address, <a href="#p4.1.2">&sect;4.1.2</a>.
+(Control is tested by means described in <a href="#p4.2.2">&sect;4.2.2</a>.)
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Individuals.</b>
+The authority to participate as a Member is established
+by the CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>).
+Assurances are requested by means of the signed CAP form.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Organisations.</b>
+The authority for Organisation Assurance is established
+in the COAP form, as signed by an authorised representative
+of the organisation.
+The authority for the
+Organisation Administrator
+(O-Admin) is also established on the
+COAP form.
+See Organisation Assurance Policy.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p3.2.6" id="p3.2.6">3.2.6. Criteria for interoperation</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert does not currently issue certificates to subordinate CAs
+or other PKIs.
+Other CAs may become Members, and are then subject to the
+same reliance provisions as all Members.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p3.3" id="p3.3">3.3. Re-key Requests</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Via the Member's account.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p3.4" id="p3.4">3.4. Revocations Requests</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Via the Member's account.
+In the event that the Member has lost the password,
+or similar, the Member emails the support team who
+either work through the lost-password questions
+process or file a dispute.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p4" id="p4">4. CERTIFICATE LIFE-CYCLE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+The general life-cycle for a new certificate for an Individual Member is:
+
+<ol><li>
+ Member adds claim to an address (domain/email).
+ </li><li>
+ System probes address for control.
+ </li><li>
+ Member creates key pair.
+ </li><li>
+ Member submits CSR with desired options (Anonymous Certificate, SSO, Root Certificate) .
+ </li><li>
+ System validates and accepts CSR based on
+ known information: claims, assurance, controls, technicalities.
+ </li><li>
+ System signs certificate.
+ </li><li>
+ System makes signed certificate available to Member.
+ </li><li>
+ Member accepts certificate.
+</li></ol>
+
+</p>
+
+<p>
+(Some steps are not applicable, such as anonymous certificates.)
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p4.1" id="p4.1">4.1. Certificate Application</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.1.1" id="p4.1.1">4.1.1. Who can submit a certificate application</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Members may submit certificate applications.
+On issuance of certificates, Members become Subscribers.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.1.2" id="p4.1.2">4.1.2. Adding Addresses</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The Member can claim ownership or authorised control of
+a domain or email address on the online system.
+This is a necessary step towards issuing a certificate.
+There are these controls:
+<ul><li>
+ The claim of ownership or control is legally significant
+ and may be referred to dispute resolution.
+ </li><li>
+ Each unique address can be handled by one account only.
+ </li><li>
+ When the Member makes the claim,
+ the certificate application system automatically initiates the
+ check of control, as below.
+</li></ul>
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.1.3" id="p4.1.3">4.1.3. Preparing CSR </a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Members generate their own key-pairs.
+The CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>)
+obliges the Member as responsible for security.
+See CCA2.5, &sect;9.6.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is prepared by the
+Member for presentation to the automated system.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.2" id="p4.2">4.2. Certificate application processing</a></h3>
+
+<!-- states what a CA does on receipt of the request -->
+
+<p>
+The CA's certificate application process is completely automated.
+Requests, approvals and rejections are handled by the website system.
+Each application should be processed in less than a minute.
+</p>
+<p>
+Where certificates are requested for more than one
+purpose, the requirements for each purpose must be
+fulfilled.
+</p>
+
+<!-- all sub headings in 4.2 are local, not from Chokhani. -->
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.1" id="p4.2.1">4.2.1. Authentication </a></h4>
+
+<p>
+ The Member logs in to her account on the CAcert website
+ and thereby authenticates herself with username
+ and passphrase or with her CAcert client-side digital certificate.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.2" id="p4.2.2">4.2.2. Verifying Control</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+In principle, at least two controls are placed on each address.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b><a name="ping">Email-Ping</a>.</b>
+Email addresses are verified by means of an
+<i><a name="ping">Email-Ping test</a></i>:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ The system generates a cookie
+ (a random, hard-to-guess code)
+ and formats it as a string.
+ </li><li>
+ The system sends the cookie
+ to the Member in an email.
+ </li><li>
+ Once the Member receives the email,
+ she enters the cookie into the website.
+ </li><li>
+ The entry of the code verifies
+ control of that email account.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+<b><a name="email">Email Control</a>.</b>
+Email addresses for client certificates are verified by passing the
+following checks:
+</p>
+<ol>
+ <li>An Email-ping test
+ is done on the email address.
+ </li>
+ <li>The Member must have signed a CAP form or equivalent,
+ and been awarded at least one Assurance point.
+ </li>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+<b><a name="domain">Domain Control</a>.</b>
+Domains addresses for server certificates are verified by passing two of the
+following checks:
+</p>
+<ol> <li>
+ An Email-ping test
+ is done on an email address chosen from <i>whois</i>
+ or interpolated from the domain name.
+ </li> <li>
+ The system generates a cookie
+ which is then placed in DNS
+ by the Member.
+ </li> <li>
+ The system generates a cookie
+ which is then placed in HTTP headers or a text file on the website
+ by the Member.
+ </li> <li>
+ Statement by at least 2 Assurers about
+ ownership/control of the domain name.
+ </li> <li>
+ The system generates a cookie
+ which is then placed in whois registry information
+ by the Member.
+</li> </ol>
+
+<p>
+Notes.
+<ul><li>
+ Other methods can be added from time to time by CAcert.
+ </li><li>
+ Static cookies should remain for the duration of a certificate
+ for occasional re-testing.
+ </li><li>
+ Dynamic tests can be repeated at a later time of CAcert's choosing.
+ </li><li>
+ Domain control checks may be extended to apply to email control
+ in the future.
+</li></ul>
+</p>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> As of the time of writing, only a singular Email-ping is implemented in the technical system. </li>
+ <li> A further approved check is the 1 pt Assurance. </li>
+ <li> Practically, this would mean that certificates can only be issued under Audit Roots to Members with 1 point. </li>
+ <li> Criteria DRC C.7.f, A.2.q, A.2.i indicate registry whois reading. Also A.2.h. </li>
+ <li> Current view is that this will be resolved in BirdShack. </li>
+ </ul>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.3" id="p4.2.3">4.2.3. Options Available</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The Member has options available:
+</p>
+
+<ul>
+ <li>Each Email address that is verified
+ is available for Client Certificates.
+ </li>
+ <li>Each Domain address that is verified
+ is available for Server Certificates.
+ </li>
+ <li>If the Member is unassured then only the Member SubRoot is available.
+ </li>
+ <li>If the Member is Assured then both Assured Member and Member SubRoots
+ are available.
+ </li>
+ <li>If a Name is Assured then it may be
+ put in a client certificate or an OpenPGP signature.
+ </li>
+</ul>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.4" id="p4.2.4">4.2.4. Client Certificate Procedures</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+For an individual client certificate, the following is required.
+<ul>
+ <li>The email address is claimed and added. </li>
+ <li>The email address is ping-tested. </li>
+ <li>For the Member Subroot, the Member must have
+ at least one point of Assurance and have signed a CAP form.</li>
+ <li>For the Assured Subroot, the Member must have
+ at least fifty points of Assurance. </li>
+ <li>To include a Name, the Name must be assured to at least fifty points. </li>
+
+</ul>
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.5" id="p4.2.5">4.2.5. Server Certificate Procedures</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+For a server certificate, the following is required:
+<ul>
+ <li>The domain is claimed and added. </li>
+ <li>The domain is checked twice as above. </li>
+ <li>For the Member SubRoot, the Member must have
+ at least one point of Assurance and have signed a CAP form.</li>
+ <li>For the Assured SubRoot, the Member must have
+ at least fifty points of Assurance. </li>
+</ul>
+
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.6" id="p4.2.6">4.2.6. Code-signing Certificate Procedures</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Code-signing certificates are made available to Assurers only.
+They are processed in a similar manner to client certificates.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.2.7" id="p4.2.7">4.2.7. Organisation Domain Verification</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Organisation Domains are handled under the Organisation Assurance Policy
+and the Organisation Handbook.
+</p>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> As of time of writing, there is no Handbook for Organisation Assurers or for the Organisation, and the policy needs rework; so (audit) roots will not have OA certs .... </li>
+ <li> <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/OrganisationAssurance"> Drafts </a> for ongoing story. </li>
+ </ul>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.3" id="p4.3">4.3. Certificate issuance</a></h3>
+
+
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/153/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/cryptography.png"> </a> -->
+<h4><a name="p4.3.1" id="p4.3.1">4.3.1. CA actions during certificate issuance</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+<b>Key Sizes.</b>
+Members may request keys of any size permitted by the key algorithm.
+Many older hardware devices require small keys.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Algorithms.</b>
+CAcert currently only supports the RSA algorithm for X.509 keys.
+X.509 signing uses the SHA-1 message digest algorithm.
+OpenPGP Signing uses RSA signing over RSA and DSA keys.
+
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Process for Certificates:</b>
+All details in each certificate are verified
+by the website issuance system.
+Issuance is based on a 'template' system that selects
+profiles for certificate lifetime, size, algorithm.
+</p>
+
+
+<ol><li>
+ The CSR is verified.
+ </li><li>
+ Data is extracted from CSR and verified:
+ <ul>
+ <li> Name &sect;3.1, </li>
+ <li> Email address <a href="#p4.2.2">&sect;4.2.2</a>, </li>
+ <li> Domain address <a href="#p4.2.2">&sect;4.2.2</a>. </li>
+ </ul>
+ </li><li>
+ Certificate is generated from template.
+ </li><li>
+ Data is copied from CSR.
+ </li><li>
+ Certificate is signed.
+ </li><li>
+ Certificate is stored as well as mailed.
+</li></ol>
+
+
+<p>
+<b>Process for OpenPGP key signatures:</b>
+All details in each Sub-ID are verified
+by the website issuance system.
+Issuance is based on the configuration that selects
+the profile for signature lifetime, size,
+algorithm following the process:
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ The public key is verified.
+ </li><li>
+ Data is extracted from the key and verified (Name, Emails).
+ Only the combinations of data in Table 4.3.1 are permitted.
+ </li><li>
+ OpenPGP Key Signature is generated.
+ </li><li>
+ Key Signature is applied to the key.
+ </li><li>
+ The signed key is stored as well as mailed.
+</li></ol>
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" align="center" valign="top" cellpadding="5"><tbody>
+ <tr>
+ <td><br></td>
+ <td>Verified Name</td>
+ <td valign="top">Unverified Name<br></td>
+ <td>Empty Name<br></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>Verified email<br></td>
+ <td><center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center></td>
+ <td valign="top"><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td>
+ <td><center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>Unverified email</td>
+ <td><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td>
+ <td valign="top"><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td>
+ <td><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td></tr><tr><td valign="top">Empty email<br></td>
+ <td valign="top"><center> <font title="pass." color="green" size="+3"> &#10004; </font> </center></td>
+ <td valign="top"><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td>
+ <td valign="top"><center> <font title="pass." color="red" size="+3"> &#10008; </font> </center></td>
+ </tr>
+</tbody></table><br>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 4.3.1. Permitted Data in Signed OpenPgp Keys</span>
+</center>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.3.2" id="p4.3.2">4.3.2. Notification to subscriber by the CA of issuance of certificate</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Once signed, the certificate is
+made available via the Member's account,
+and emailed to the Member.
+It is also archived internally.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.4" id="p4.4">4.4. Certificate acceptance</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.4.1" id="p4.4.1">4.4.1. Conduct constituting certificate acceptance</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+There is no need for the Member to explicitly accept the certificate.
+In case the Member does not accept the certificate,
+the certificate has to be revoked and made again.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.4.2" id="p4.4.2">4.4.2. Publication of the certificate by the CA</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert does not currently publish the issued certificates
+in any repository.
+In the event that CAcert will run a repository,
+the publication of certificates and signatures
+there will be at the Member's options.
+However note that certificates that are issued
+and delivered to the Member are presumed to be
+published. See &sect;2.2.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.4.3" id="p4.4.3">4.4.3. Notification of certificate issuance by the CA to other entities</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+There are no external entities that are notified about issued certificates.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.5" id="p4.5">4.5. Key pair and certificate usage</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+All Members (subscribers and relying parties)
+are obliged according to the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>)
+See especially 2.3 through 2.5.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p4.5.1" id="p4.5.1">4.5.1. Subscriber Usage and Responsibilities</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Subscribers should use keys only for their proper purpose,
+as indicated by the certificate, or by wider agreement with
+others.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.5.2" id="p4.5.2">4.5.2. Relying Party Usage and Responsibilities</a></h4>
+
+
+<p>
+Relying parties (Members) may rely on the following.
+</p>
+
+<center>
+ <table border="1" cellpadding="25"><tr><td>
+ <p align="center">
+ <big><b>Relying Party Statement</b></big>
+ <p>
+ Certificates are issued to Members only.<br><br>
+ All information in a certificate is verified.
+ </p>
+ </td></tr></table>
+</center>
+
+
+<p>
+The following notes are in addition to the Relying Party Statement,
+and can be seen as limitations on it.
+</p>
+
+<h5>4.5.2.a Methods of Verification </h5>
+<p>
+The term Verification as used in the Relying Party Statement means one of
+</p>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5"><tr>
+ <th>Type</th><th>How</th><th>Authority</th><th>remarks</th>
+</tr><tr>
+ <th>Assurance</th><td>under CAcert Assurance Programme (CAP)</td>
+ <td>Assurance Policy</td>
+ <td>only information assured to 50 points under CAP is placed in the certificate </td>
+</tr><tr>
+ <th>Evaluation</th><td>under automated domain and email checks </td>
+ <td>this CPS</td>
+ <td>see &sect;4.2.2</td>
+</tr><tr>
+ <th>Controlled</th><td>programs or "profiles" that check the information within the CSR </td>
+ <td>this CPS</td>
+ <td>see &sect;7.1</td>
+</tr></table>
+
+<h5>4.5.2.b Who may rely</h5>
+<p>
+<b>Members may rely.</b>
+Relying parties are Members,
+and as such are bound by this CPS and the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>).
+The licence and permission to rely is not assignable.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Suppliers of Software.</b>
+CAcert roots may be distributed in software,
+and those providers may
+enter into agreement with CAcert by means of the
+Third Party Vendor - Disclaimer and Licence
+(wip).
+This licence brings the supplier in to the Community
+to the extent that <span class="q"> ...WIP comment:</span>
+they agree to dispute resolution
+within CAcert's forum.
+</p>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> Just exactly what the 3PV-DaL says is unclear.</li>
+ <li> The document itself is more a collection of ideas.</li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+<p>
+<b>NRPs may not rely.</b>
+If not related to CAcert by means of an agreement
+that binds the parties to dispute resolution within CAcert's forum,
+a person is a Non-Related-Person (NRP).
+An NRP is not permitted to rely and is not a Relying Party.
+For more details, see the
+NRP - Disclaimer and Licence (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h5>4.5.2.c The Act of Reliance </h5>
+
+<p>
+<b>Decision making.</b>
+Reliance means taking a decision that is in part or in whole
+based on the information in the certificate.
+
+A Relying Party may incorporate
+the information in the certificate,
+and the implied information such as Membership,
+into her decision-making.
+In making a decision,
+a Relying Party should also:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ include her own overall risk equation,
+ </li><li>
+ include the general limitations of the Assurance process,
+ certificates, and wider security considerations,
+ </li><li>
+ make additional checks to provide more information,
+ </li><li>
+ consider any wider agreement with the other Member, and
+ </li><li>
+ use an appropriate protocol or custom of reliance (below).
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+<b>Examining the Certificate.</b>
+A Relying Party must make her own decision in using
+each certificate. She must examine the certificate,
+a process called <i>validation</i>.
+Certificate-related information includes,
+but is not limited to:
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ Name,
+ </li><li>
+ expiry time of certificate,
+ </li><li>
+ current certificate revocation list (CRL),
+ </li><li>
+ certificate chain and
+ the validity check of the certificates in the chain,
+ </li><li>
+ issuer of certificate (CAcert),
+ </li><li>
+ SubRoot is intended for reliance (Assured, Organisation and Class 3)
+ </li><li>
+ purpose of certificate.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+<b>Keeping Records.</b>
+Records should be kept, appropriate to the import of the decision.
+The certificate should be preserved.
+This should include sufficient
+evidence to establish who the parties are
+(especially, the certificate relied upon),
+to establish the transaction in question,
+and to establish the wider agreement that
+defines the act.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Wider Protocol.</b>
+In principle, reliance will be part of a wider protocol
+(customary method in reaching and preserving agreement)
+that presents and preserves sufficient of the evidence
+for dispute resolution under CAcert's forum of Arbitration.
+The protocol should be agreed amongst the parties,
+and tuned to the needs.
+This CPS does not define any such protocol.
+In the absence of such a protocol, reliance will be weakened;
+a dispute without sufficient evidence may be dismissed by an Arbitrator.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>As Compared to Usage</b>.
+Reliance goes beyond Usage. The latter is limited to
+letting the software act as the total and only Validation
+Authority. When relying, the Member also augments
+the algorithmic processing of the software with her own
+checks of the business, technical and certificate aspect.
+</p>
+
+<h5>4.5.2.d Risks and Limitations of Reliance </h5>
+<p>
+<b>Roots and Naming.</b>
+Where the Class 1 root is used,
+this Subscriber may be a new Member
+including one with zero points.
+Where the Name is not provided,
+this indicates it is not available.
+In these circumstances,
+reliance is not defined,
+and Relying parties should take more care.
+See Table 4.5.2.
+</p>
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td></td>
+ <td colspan="4"><center><i>Statements of Reliance for Members</center></i></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><i>Class of Root</i></td>
+ <td><center><b>Anonymous</b><br>(all Members)</center></td>
+ <td><center><b>Named</b><br>(Assured Members only)</center></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Class<br><big><b>1</b></big></center></td>
+ <td rowspan="2" bgcolor="red">
+ <b>Do not rely.</b><BR>
+ Relying party must use other methods to check. </td>
+ <td rowspan="2" bgcolor="orange">
+ Do not rely.
+ Although the named Member has been Assured by CAcert,
+ reliance is not defined with Class 1 root.<BR>
+ (issued for compatibility only).</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center><big><b>Member</b></big><br>SubRoot</center></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center>Class<br><big><b>3</b></big></center></td>
+ <td rowspan="2" bgcolor="orange">
+ Do not rely on the Name (being available).
+ The Member has been Assured by CAcert,
+ but reliance is undefined.</td>
+ <td rowspan="2">
+ The Member named in the certificate has been Assured by CAcert.</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><center><big><b>Assured</b></big><br>SubRoot</center></td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 4.5.2. Statements of Reliance</span>
+</center>
+
+<p>
+<b>Software Agent.</b>
+When relying on a certificate, relying parties should
+note that your software is responsible for the way it
+shows you the information in a certificate.
+If your software agent hides parts of the information,
+your sole remedy may be to choose another software agent.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Malware.</b>
+When relying on a certificate, relying parties should
+note that platforms that are vulnerable to viruses or
+trojans or other weaknesses may not process any certificates
+properly and may give deceptive or fraudulent results.
+It is your responsibility to ensure you are using a platform
+that is secured according to the needs of the application.
+</p>
+
+<h5>4.5.2.e When something goes wrong </h5>
+<p>
+In the event that an issue arises out of the Member's reliance,
+her sole avenue is <b>to file dispute under DRP</b>.
+See <a href="#p9.13">&sect;9.13</a>.
+<!-- DRC_A&sect;A.4.d -->
+For this purpose, the certificate (and other evidence) should be preserved.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Which person?</b>
+Members may install certificates for other individuals or in servers,
+but the Member to whom the certificate is issued
+remains the responsible person.
+E.g., under Organisation Assurance, an organisation is issued
+a certificate for the use by individuals
+or servers within that organisation,
+but the Organisation is the responsible person.
+</p>
+
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/424/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/security_holes.png"> </a> -->
+<p>
+<b>Software Agent.</b>
+If a Member is relying on a CAcert root embedded in
+the software as supplied by a vendor,
+the risks, liabilities and obligations of the Member
+do not automatically transfer to the vendor.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.6" id="p4.6">4.6. Certificate renewal</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+A certificate can be renewed at any time.
+The procedure of certificate renewal is the same
+as for the initial certificate issuance.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.7" id="p4.7">4.7. Certificate re-key</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Certificate "re-keyings" are not offered nor supported.
+A new certificate with a new key has to be requested and issued instead,
+and the old one revoked.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.8" id="p4.8">4.8. Certificate modification</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Certificate "modifications" are not offered nor supported.
+A new certificate has to be requested and issued instead.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.9" id="p4.9">4.9. Certificate revocation and suspension</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.1" id="p4.9.1">4.9.1. Circumstances for revocation</a></h4>
+<p>
+Certificates may be revoked under the following circumstances:
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ As initiated by the Subscriber through her online account.
+ </li><li>
+ As initiated in an emergency action by a
+ support team member.
+ Such action will immediately be referred to dispute resolution
+ for ratification.
+ </li><li>
+ Under direction from the Arbitrator in a duly ordered ruling
+ from a filed dispute.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+These are the only three circumstances under which a
+revocation occurs.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.2" id="p4.9.2">4.9.2. Who can request revocation</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+As above.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.3" id="p4.9.3">4.9.3. Procedure for revocation request</a></h4>
+<p>
+The Subscriber logs in to her online account through
+the website at http://www.cacert.org/ .
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In any other event such as lost passwords or fraud,
+a dispute should be filed
+by email at
+ &lt; support AT cacert DOT org &gt;
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.4" id="p4.9.4">4.9.4. Revocation request grace period</a></h4>
+
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.5" id="p4.9.5">4.9.5. Time within which CA must process the revocation request</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The revocation automated in the Web Interface for subscribers,
+and is handled generally in less than a minute.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+A filed dispute that requests a revocation should be handled
+within a five business days, however the Arbitrator has discretion.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.6" id="p4.9.6">4.9.6. Revocation checking requirement for relying parties</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Each revoked certificate is recorded in the
+certificate revocation list (CRL).
+Relying Parties must check a certificate against
+the most recent CRL issued, in order to validate
+the certificate for the intended reliance.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.7" id="p4.9.7">4.9.7. CRL issuance frequency (if applicable)</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+A new CRL is issued after every certificate revocation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.8" id="p4.9.8">4.9.8. Maximum latency for CRLs (if applicable)</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The maximum latency between revocation and issuance of the CRL is 1 hour.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.9" id="p4.9.9">4.9.9. On-line revocation/status checking availability</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+OCSP is available at
+http://ocsp.cacert.org/ .
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.10" id="p4.9.10">4.9.10. On-line revocation checking requirements</a></h4>
+<p>
+Relying parties must check up-to-date status before relying.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.11" id="p4.9.11">4.9.11. Other forms of revocation advertisements available</a></h4>
+<p>
+None.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.12" id="p4.9.12">4.9.12. Special requirements re key compromise</a></h4>
+<p>
+Subscribers are obliged to revoke certificates at the earliest opportunity.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.13" id="p4.9.13">4.9.13. Circumstances for suspension</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Suspension of certificates is not available.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.14" id="p4.9.14">4.9.14. Who can request suspension</a></h4>
+<p>
+Not applicable.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.15" id="p4.9.15">4.9.15. Procedure for suspension request</a></h4>
+<p>
+Not applicable.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.9.16" id="p4.9.16">4.9.16. Limits on suspension period</a></h4>
+<p>
+Not applicable.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<h3><a name="p4.10" id="p4.10">4.10. Certificate status services</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.10.1" id="p4.10.1">4.10.1. Operational characteristics</a></h4>
+<p>
+OCSP is available
+at http://ocsp.cacert.org/ .
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.10.2" id="p4.10.2">4.10.2. Service availability</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+OCSP is made available on an experimental basis.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.10.3" id="p4.10.3">4.10.3. Optional features</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.11" id="p4.11">4.11. End of subscription</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Certificates include expiry dates.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p4.12" id="p4.12">4.12. Key escrow and recovery</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.12.1" id="p4.12.1">4.12.1. Key escrow and recovery policy and practices</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert does not generate nor escrow subscriber keys.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p4.12.2" id="p4.12.2">4.12.2. Session key encapsulation and recovery policy and practices</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p5" id="p5">5. FACILITY, MANAGEMENT, AND OPERATIONAL CONTROLS</a></h2>
+
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/87/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/velociraptors.jpg"> </a> -->
+
+<h3><a name="p5.1" id="p5.1">5.1. Physical controls</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+<ul><li>
+ Site location and construction - SP2.1
+ </li><li>
+ Physical access - SP2.3
+</li></ul>
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p5.1.3" id="p5.1.3">5.1.3. Power and air conditioning</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 2.1.2 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.1.4" id="p5.1.4">5.1.4. Water exposures</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 2.1.4 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.1.5" id="p5.1.5">5.1.5. Fire prevention and protection</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 2.1.4 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.1.6" id="p5.1.6">5.1.6. Media storage</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 4.3 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.1.7" id="p5.1.7">5.1.7. Waste disposal</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.1.8" id="p5.1.8">5.1.8. Off-site backup</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 4.3 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.2" id="p5.2">5.2. Procedural controls</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.2.1" id="p5.2.1">5.2.1. Trusted roles</a></h4>
+
+<ul>
+ <li><b> Technical teams:</b>
+ <ul>
+ <li>User support personnel</li>
+ <li>Systems Administrators -- critical and non-critical</li>
+ <li>Softare Developers</li>
+ <li>controllers of keys</li>
+ </ul>
+ Refer to Security Policy 9.1 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>)
+
+ </li>
+
+ <li><b>Assurance:</b>
+ <ul>
+ <li>Assurers</li>
+ <li> Any others authorised under COD13 </li>
+ </ul>
+ Refer to Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>)
+ </li>
+
+ <li><b>Governance:</b>
+ <ul>
+ <li>Directors (members of the CAcert Inc. committee, or "Board") </li>
+ <li>Internal Auditor</li>
+ <li>Arbitrator</li>
+ </ul>
+ </li>
+</ul>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p5.2.2" id="p5.2.2">5.2.2. Number of persons required per task</a></h4>
+<p>
+CAcert operates to the principles of <i>four eyes</i> and <i>dual control</i>.
+All important roles require a minimum of two persons.
+The people may be tasked to operate
+with an additional person observing (<i>four eyes</i>),
+or with two persons controlling (<i>dual control</i>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.2.3" id="p5.2.3">5.2.3. Identification and authentication for each role</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+All important roles are generally required to be assured
+at least to the level of Assurer, as per AP.
+Refer to Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Technical.</b>
+Refer to Security Policy 9.1 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.2.4" id="p5.2.4">5.2.4. Roles requiring separation of duties</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Roles strive in general for separation of duties, either along the lines of
+<i>four eyes principle</i> or <i>dual control</i>.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.3" id="p5.3">5.3. Personnel controls</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.1" id="p5.3.1">5.3.1. Qualifications, experience, and clearance requirements</a></h4>
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td><b>Role</b></td> <td><b>Policy</b></td> <td><b>Comments</b></td>
+ </tr><tr>
+ <td>Assurer</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php"> COD13</td>
+ <td>
+ Passes Challenge, Assured to 100 points.
+ </td>
+ </tr><tr>
+ <td>Organisation Assurer</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php">COD11</a></td>
+ <td>
+ Trained and tested by two supervising OAs.
+ </td>
+ </tr><tr>
+ <td>Technical</td>
+ <td>SM => COD08</td>
+ <td>
+ Teams responsible for testing.
+ </td>
+ </tr><tr>
+ <td>Arbitrator</td>
+ <td><a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">COD7</a></td>
+ <td>
+ Experienced Assurers.
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 5.3.1. Controls on Roles</span>
+</center>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.2" id="p5.3.2">5.3.2. Background check procedures</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 9.1.3 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>).
+</p>
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/538/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/security.png"> </a> -->
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.3" id="p5.3.3">5.3.3. Training requirements</a></h4>
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+<h4><a name="p5.3.4" id="p5.3.4">5.3.4. Retraining frequency and requirements</a></h4>
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.5" id="p5.3.5">5.3.5. Job rotation frequency and sequence</a></h4>
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.6" id="p5.3.6">5.3.6. Sanctions for unauthorized actions</a></h4>
+<p>
+Any actions that are questionable
+- whether uncertain or grossly negligent -
+may be filed as a dispute.
+The Arbitrator has wide discretion in
+ruling on loss of points, retraining,
+or termination of access or status.
+Refer to DRP.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.7" id="p5.3.7">5.3.7. Independent contractor requirements</a></h4>
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.3.8" id="p5.3.8">5.3.8. Documentation supplied to personnel</a></h4>
+<p>No stipulation.</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.4" id="p5.4">5.4. Audit logging procedures</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 4.2, 5 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.5" id="p5.5">5.5. Records archival</a></h3>
+<p>
+The standard retention period is 7 years.
+Once archived, records can only be obtained and verified
+by means of a filed dispute.
+Following types of records are archived:
+</p>
+
+<center>
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td><b>Record</b></td>
+ <td><b>Nature</b></td>
+ <td><b>Exceptions</b></td>
+ <td><b>Documentation</b></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>Member</td>
+ <td>username, primary and added addresses, security questions, Date of Birth</td>
+ <td>resigned non-subscribers: 0 years.</td>
+ <td>Security Policy and Privacy Policy</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>Assurance</td>
+ <td>CAP forms</td>
+ <td>"at least 7 years."<br> as per subsidiary policies</td>
+ <td>Assurance Policy 4.5</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>Organisation Assurance</td>
+ <td>COAP forms</td>
+ <td>as per subsidiary policies</td>
+ <td>Organisation Assurance Policy</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>certificates and revocations</td>
+ <td> for reliance </td>
+ <td> 7 years after termination </td>
+ <td>this CPS</td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>critical roles</td>
+ <td>background check worksheets</td>
+ <td>under direct Arbitrator control</td>
+ <td>Security Policy 9.1.3</td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<span class="figure">Table 5.5. Documents and Retention </span>
+</center>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p5.6" id="p5.6">5.6. Key changeover</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 9.2 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.7" id="p5.7">5.7. Compromise and disaster recovery</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy 5, 6 (<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/SecurityPolicy.html">COD8</a>).
+(Refer to <a href="#p1.4">&sect;1.4</a> for limitations to service.)
+</p>
+
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p5.8" id="p5.8">5.8. CA or RA termination</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.8.1" id="p5.8.1">5.8.1 CA termination</a></h4>
+
+
+<p>
+<s>
+If CAcert should terminate its operation or be
+taken over by another organisation, the actions
+will be conducted according to a plan approved
+by the CAcert Inc. Board.
+</s>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In the event of operational termination, the
+Roots (including SubRoots)
+and all private Member information will be secured.
+The Roots will be handed over to a responsible
+party for the sole purpose of issuing revocations.
+Member information will be securely destroyed.
+</p>
+
+<span class="change">
+<p>
+The CA cannot be transferrred to another organisation.
+</p>
+</span>
+
+<p>
+<s>
+In the event of takeover,
+the Board will decide if it is in the interest
+of the Members to be converted to the
+new organisation.
+Members will be notified about the conversion
+and transfer of the Member information.
+Such takeover, conversion or transfer may involve termination
+of this CPS and other documents.
+See &sect;9.10.2.
+Members will have reasonable time in which to file a related
+dispute after notification
+(at least one month).
+See &sect;9.13.
+</s>
+</p>
+<s>
+ <ul class="error">
+ <li> The ability to transfer is not given in any of CCA, PP or AP! </li>
+ <li> The Board does not have the power to terminate a policy, that is the role of policy group! </li>
+ <li> The right to transfer was against the principles of the CAcert? </li>
+ <li> Check Association Statutes.... </li>
+ </ul>
+</s>
+
+<span class="change">
+<s>
+<p>
+New root keys and certificates will be made available
+by the new organisation as soon as reasonably practical.
+</p>
+</s>
+</span>
+
+<h4><a name="p5.8.2" id="p5.8.2">5.8.2 RA termination</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+When an Assurer desires to voluntarily terminates
+her responsibilities, she does this by filing a dispute,
+and following the instructions of the Arbitrator.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In the case of involuntary termination, the process is
+the same, save for some other party filing the dispute.
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p6" id="p6">6. TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROLS</a></h2>
+
+
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/221/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/random_number.png"> </a> -->
+
+<h3><a name="p6.1" id="p6.1">6.1. Key Pair Generation and Installation</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.1" id="p6.1.1">6.1.1. Key Pair Generation</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Subscribers generate their own Key Pairs.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.2" id="p6.1.2">6.1.2. Subscriber Private key security</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+There is no technical stipulation on how Subscribers generate
+and keep safe their private keys,
+however, CCA 2.5 provides for general security obligations.
+See <a href="#p9.6">&sect;9.6</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.3" id="p6.1.3">6.1.3. Public Key Delivery to Certificate Issuer</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Members login to their online account.
+Public Keys are delivered by cut-and-pasting
+them into the appropriate window.
+Public Keys are delivered in signed-CSR form
+for X.509 and in self-signed form for OpenPGP.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.4" id="p6.1.4">6.1.4. CA Public Key delivery to Relying Parties</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The CA root certificates are distributed by these means:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Published on the website of CAcert,
+ in both HTTP and HTTPS.
+ </li><li>
+ Included in Third-Party Software such as
+ Browsers, Email-Clients.
+ Such suppliers are subject to the Third Party Vendor Agreement.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p class="q"> Third Party Vendor Agreement is early wip, only </p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.5" id="p6.1.5">6.1.5. Key sizes</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No limitation is placed on Subscriber key sizes.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+CAcert X.509 root and intermediate keys are currently 4096 bits.
+X.509 roots use RSA and sign with the SHA-1 message digest algorithm.
+See <a href="#p4.3.1">&sect;4.3.1</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+OpenPGP Signing uses both RSA and DSA (1024 bits).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+CAcert adds larger keys and hashes
+in line with general cryptographic trends,
+and as supported by major software suppliers.
+</p>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> old Class 3 SubRoot is signed with MD5 </li>
+ <li> likely this will clash with future plans of vendors to drop acceptance of MD5</li>
+ <li> Is this a concern? </li>
+ <li> to users who have these certs, a lot? </li>
+ <li> to audit, not much? </li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.6" id="p6.1.6">6.1.6. Public key parameters generation and quality checking</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.1.7" id="p6.1.7">6.1.7. Key Usage Purposes</a></h4>
+
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> This section probably needs to detail the key usage bits in the certs. </li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+<p>
+CAcert roots are general purpose.
+Each root key may sign all of the general purposes
+- client, server, code.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The website controls the usage purposes that may be signed.
+This is effected by means of the 'template' system.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<!-- <a href="http://xkcd.com/257/"> <img align="right" src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/code_talkers.png"> </a> -->
+
+<h3><a name="p6.2" id="p6.2">6.2. Private Key Protection and Cryptographic Module Engineering Controls</a></h3>
+
+
+
+
+<h4><a name="p6.2.1" id="p6.2.1">6.2.1. Cryptographic module standards and controls</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+SubRoot keys are stored on a single machine which acts
+as a Cryptographic Module, or <i>signing server</i>.
+It operates a single daemon for signing only.
+The signing server has these security features:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ It is connected only by one
+ dedicated (serial USB) link
+ to the online account server.
+ It is not connected to the network,
+ nor to any internal LAN (ethernet),
+ nor to a console switch.
+ </li><li>
+ The protocol over the dedicated link is a custom, simple
+ request protocol that only handles certificate signing requests.
+ </li><li>
+ The daemon is designed not to reveal the key.
+ </li><li>
+ The daemon incorporates a dead-man switch that monitors
+ the one webserver machine that requests access.
+ </li><li>
+ The daemon shuts down if a bad request is detected.
+ </li><li>
+ The daemon resides on an encrypted partition.
+ </li><li>
+ The signing server can only be (re)started with direct
+ systems administration access.
+ </li><li>
+ Physical Access to the signing server is under dual control.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+See &sect;5. and the Security Policy 9.3.1.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+(Hardware-based, commercial and standards-based cryptographic
+modules have been tried and tested, and similar have been tested,
+but have been found wanting, e.g., for short key lengths and
+power restrictions.)
+</p>
+
+<ol class="q"><li>
+ What document is responsible for architecture? CPS? SM?
+ <a href="http://www.cacert.org/help.php?id=7">website</a>?
+ SM punts it to CPS, so above stays.
+ </li><li>
+ There is no criteria on Architecture.
+ </li><li>
+ Old questions moved to SM.
+ </li><li>
+ See
+ <a href="http://www.cacert.org/help.php?id=7">
+ CAcert Root key protection</a> which should be deprecated by this CPS.
+</li></ol>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p6.3" id="p6.3">6.3. Other aspects of key pair management</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p6.3.1" id="p6.3.1">6.3.1. Public key archival</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Subscriber certificates, including public keys,
+are stored in the database backing the online system.
+They are not made available in a public- or subscriber-accessible
+archive, see &sect;2.
+They are backed-up by CAcert's normal backup procedure,
+but their availability is a subscriber responsibility.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p6.3.2" id="p6.3.2">6.3.2. Certificate operational periods and key pair usage periods</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The operational period of a certificate and its key pair
+depends on the Assurance status of the Member,
+see <a href="#p1.4.5">&sect;1.4.5</a> and Assurance Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The CAcert (top-level) Root certificate
+has a 30 year expiry.
+SubRoots have 10 years, and are to be rolled over more quickly.
+The keysize of the root certificates are chosen
+in order to ensure an optimum security to CAcert
+Members based on current recommendations from the
+<a href="http://www.keylength.com/">cryptographic community</a>
+and maximum limits in generally available software.
+At time of writing this is 4096 bits.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p6.4" id="p6.4">6.4. Activation data</a></h3>
+<p> No stipulation. </p>
+
+<h3><a name="p6.5" id="p6.5">6.5. Computer security controls</a></h3>
+<p>
+Refer to Security Policy.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p6.6" id="p6.6">6.6. Life cycle technical controls</a></h3>
+<p>
+Refer to SM7 "Software Development".
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p6.7" id="p6.7">6.7. Network security controls</a></h3>
+<p>
+Refer to SM3.1 "Logical Security - Network".
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p6.8" id="p6.8">6.8. Time-stamping</a></h3>
+<p>
+Each server synchronises with NTP.
+No "timestamping" service is currently offered.
+</p>
+
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> How does the signing server syncronise if only connected over serial?</li>
+ <li> How is timestamping done on records?</li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p7" id="p7">7. CERTIFICATE, CRL, AND OCSP PROFILES</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+CAcert defines all the meanings, semantics and profiles
+applicable to issuance of certificates and signatures
+in its policies, handbooks and other documents.
+Meanings that may be written in external standards or documents
+or found in wider conventions are not
+incorporated, are not used by CAcert, and must not be implied
+by the Member or the Non-related Person.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p7.1" id="p7.1">7.1. Certificate profile</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p7.1.1" id="p7.1.1">7.1.1. Version number(s)</a></h4>
+<p class="q"> What versions of PGP are signed? v3? v4? </p>
+
+<p>
+Issued X.509 certificates are of v3 form.
+The form of the PGP signatures depends on several factors, therefore no stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.2" id="p7.1.2">7.1.2. Certificate extensions</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Client certificates include the following extensions:.
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ basicConstraints=CA:FALSE (critical)
+ </li><li>
+ keyUsage=digitalSignature,keyEncipherment,cRLSign
+ </li><li>
+ </li><li>
+ extendedKeyUsage=emailProtection,clientAuth,serverAuth,msEFS,msSGC,nsSGC
+ </li><li>
+ authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.cacert.org
+ </li><li>
+ subjectAltName=(as per <a href="#p3.1.1">&sect;3.1.1.</a>).
+</li></ul>
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> what about Client Certificates Adobe Signing extensions ?</li>
+ <li> SubjectAltName should become critical if DN is removed http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280#section-4.2.1.6</li>
+ </ul>
+
+
+<p>
+Server certificates include the following extensions:
+</p>
+<ul><li>
+ basicConstraints=CA:FALSE (critical)
+ </li><li>
+ keyUsage=digitalSignature,keyEncipherment
+ </li><li>
+ extendedKeyUsage=clientAuth,serverAuth,nsSGC,msSGC
+ </li><li>
+ authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.cacert.org
+ </li><li>
+ subjectAltName=(as per <a href="#p3.1.1">&sect;3.1.1.</a>).
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+Code-Signing certificates include the following extensions:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ basicConstraints=CA:FALSE (critical)
+ </li><li>
+ keyUsage=digitalSignature,keyEncipherment
+ </li><li>
+ extendedKeyUsage=emailProtection,clientAuth,codeSigning,msCodeInd,msCodeCom,msEFS,msSGC,nsSGC
+ </li><li>
+ authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.cacert.org
+</li></ul>
+ <ul class="q">
+ <li> what about subjectAltName for Code-signing</li>
+ </ul>
+
+<p>
+OpenPGP key signatures currently do not include extensions.
+In the future, a serial number might be included as an extension.
+</p>
+
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.3" id="p7.1.3">7.1.3. Algorithm object identifiers</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.4" id="p7.1.4">7.1.4. Name forms</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to <a href="#p3.1.1">&sect;3.1.1</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.5" id="p7.1.5">7.1.5. Name constraints</a></h4>
+<p>
+Refer to <a href="#p3.1.1">&sect;3.1.1</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.6" id="p7.1.6">7.1.6. Certificate policy object identifier</a></h4>
+<p>
+The following OIDs are defined and should be incorporated
+into certificates:
+</p>
+
+<table border="1" cellpadding="5">
+ <tr>
+ <td>
+ OID
+ </td>
+ <td>
+ Type/Meaning
+ </td>
+ <td>
+ Comment
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>
+ 1.3.6.1.4.1.18506.4.4
+ </td>
+ <td>
+ Certification Practice Statement
+ </td>
+ <td>
+ (this present document)
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+</table>
+
+<p>
+Versions are defined by additional numbers appended such as .1.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.7" id="p7.1.7">7.1.7. Usage of Policy Constraints extension</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.8" id="p7.1.8">7.1.8. Policy qualifiers syntax and semantics</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.1.9" id="p7.1.9">7.1.9. Processing semantics for the critical Certificate Policies extension</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p7.2" id="p7.2">7.2. CRL profile</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p7.2.1" id="p7.2.1">7.2.1. Version number(s)</a></h4>
+<p>
+CRLs are created in X.509 v2 format.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p7.2.2" id="p7.2.2">7.2.2. CRL and CRL entry extensions</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No extensions.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p7.3" id="p7.3">7.3. OCSP profile</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p7.3.1" id="p7.3.1">7.3.1. Version number(s)</a></h4>
+<p>
+The OCSP responder operates in Version 1.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p7.3.2" id="p7.3.2">7.3.2. OCSP extensions</a></h4>
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p8" id="p8">8. COMPLIANCE AUDIT AND OTHER ASSESSMENTS</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+There are two major threads of assessment:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ <b>Systems Audit</b>.
+ Analyses the CA for business and operations security.
+ This is conducted in two phases: documents for compliance
+ with criteria, and operations for compliance with documentation.
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Code Audit</b>.
+ Analyses the source code.
+ This is conducted at two levels:
+ Security concepts at the web applications level,
+ and source code security and bugs review.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+See the Audit page at
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Audit/">
+wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Audit/</a>
+for more information.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.1" id="p8.1">8.1. Frequency or circumstances of assessment</a></h3>
+<p>
+The first audits started in late 2005,
+and since then, assessments have been an
+ongoing task.
+Even when completed, they are expected to
+be permanent features.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ <b>Systems Audit</b>.
+ <span class="q">
+ The first phase of the first audit is nearing completion.
+ The second phase starts in earnest when documentation is in
+ effect, at lease as DRAFT under PoP.
+ As the second phase is dependent on
+ this CPS and the Security Policy, they will
+ be in effect as DRAFT at least
+ before the first audit is completed.
+ Only prior and completed audits can be reported here.
+ </span>
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Code Audit</b>.
+ <span class="q">
+ A complete review of entire source code has not yet been completed.
+ </span>
+</li></ul>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.2" id="p8.2">8.2. Identity/qualifications of assessor</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+<b>Systems Auditors.</b>
+CAcert uses business systems auditors with broad experience
+across the full range of business, information systems
+and security fields.
+In selecting a business systems auditor, CAcert looks for
+experience that includes but is not limited to
+cryptography, PKI, governance, auditing,
+compliance and regulatory environments,
+business strategy, software engineering,
+networks, law (including multijurisdictional issues),
+identity systems, fraud, IT management.
+</p>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/511/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/sleet.png"> </a> </center> -->
+
+<p>
+<b>Code Auditors.</b>
+See Security Policy, sections 7, 9.1.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.3" id="p8.3">8.3. Assessor's relationship to assessed entity</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Specific internal restrictions on audit personnel:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Must be Assured by CAcert Assurers
+ and must be background checked.
+ </li><li>
+ Must not have been active in any (other) role in CAcert.
+ Specifically, must not be an Assurer, a member of the association,
+ or in any other defined role or office.
+ </li><li>
+ Although the Auditor may be expected to undertake various
+ of the activities (Assurance, Training)
+ during the process of the audit, any results are frozen
+ until resignation as auditor is effected.
+ </li><li>
+ The Auditor is required to declare to CAcert all
+ potential conflicts of interest on an ongoing basis.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+Specific external restrictions on audit personnel:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Should have a verifiable and lengthy history in
+ user privacy and user security.
+ </li><li>
+ Must not have worked for a competitive organisation.
+ </li><li>
+ Must not have worked for national security, intelligence,
+ LEO or similar agencies.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+An Auditor may convene an audit team.
+The same restrictions apply in general
+to all members of the team, but may be varied.
+Any deviations must be documented and approved
+by the CAcert Inc. Board.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.4" id="p8.4">8.4. Topics covered by assessment</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Systems Audits are generally conducted to criteria.
+CAcert requires that the criteria are open:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Published.
+ The criteria must be reviewable by all interested parties.
+ </li><li>
+ Understandable.
+ They should be understandable, in that they provide the
+ sufficient information in a readable form for interested
+ parties to follow the gist and importance.
+ (Arcane security criteria may stretch this requirement.)
+ </li><li>
+ Complete.
+ There must be sufficent background information that the
+ whole story is there. Especially, criteria that refer
+ to undocumented practices or conventions deliberately
+ kept secret must be avoided.
+ </li><li>
+ Applicable. The criteria should relate directly
+ and unambiguously to a need of the identified interested parties
+ (Members, Relying Parties, Subscribers, Assurers).
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+See
+<a href="http://rossde.com/CA_review/">DRC</a>
+for the current criteria.
+If Auditor determines that a criteria fails to
+follow the meet the above requirements, then the criteria
+should be reworked to conform, or should be dropped
+(both with explanatory notes).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.5" id="p8.5">8.5. Actions taken as a result of deficiency</a></h3>
+<p>
+See the current
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Audit/Done">Audit Done list</a>
+for work completed, and
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AuditToDo">Audit Todo list</a>
+for work in progress.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Auditor may issue directives instructing changes,
+where essential to audit success or other extreme
+situations.
+Directives should be grounded on criteria,
+on established minimum or safe practices,
+or clearly described logic.
+Adequate discussion with Community
+(e.g., CAcert Inc. Board and with Policy Group)
+should precede any directive.
+They should be presented to the same standard
+as the criteria, above.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AuditDirectives">
+wiki.cacert.org/wiki/AuditDirectives</a>
+documents issued directives and actions.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p8.6" id="p8.6">8.6. Communication of results</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Current and past Audit information is available at
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Audit/">wiki.CAcert.org/wiki/Audit/</a>.
+CAcert runs an open disclosure policy and
+Audit is no exception.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+This CPS and other documents are subject to
+the process in Policy on Policy (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php">COD1</a>).
+Audits cover the overall processes more
+than any one document, and documents may vary
+even as Audit reports are delivered.
+</p>
+
+
+
+
+<!-- *************************************************************** -->
+<h2><a name="p9" id="p9">9. OTHER BUSINESS AND LEGAL MATTERS</a></h2>
+<h3><a name="p9.1" id="p9.1">9.1. Fees</a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+The current fees structure is posted at
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Price">wiki.cacert.org/wiki/Price</a>.
+Changes to the fees structure will be announced
+from time to time on the <a href="http://blog.cacert.org/">blog</a>.
+CAcert retains the right to charge fees for services.
+All fees are non-refundable.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p9.2" id="p9.2">9.2. Financial responsibility</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Financial risks are dealt with primarily by
+the Dispute Resolution Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">COD7</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.2.1" id="p9.2.1">9.2.1. Insurance coverage</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.2.2" id="p9.2.2">9.2.2. Other assets</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.2.3" id="p9.2.3">9.2.3. Insurance or warranty coverage for end-entities</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.3" id="p9.3">9.3. Confidentiality of business information</a></h3>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.3.1" id="p9.3.1">9.3.1. Scope of confidential information</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert has a policy of transparency and openness.
+The default posture is that information is public
+to the extent possible,
+unless covered by specific policy provisions
+(for example, passwords)
+or rulings by Arbitrator.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.4" id="p9.4">9.4. Privacy of personal information</a></h3>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/46/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/secrets.jpg"> </a> </center> -->
+<p>
+Privacy is covered by the
+CCA (COD9)
+and the Privacy Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/index.php?id=10">COD5</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.4.1" id="p9.4.1">9.4.1. Privacy plan</a></h4>
+<p> No stipulation. </p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.2" id="p9.4.2">9.4.2. Information treated as private</a></h4>
+<p>
+Member's Date of Birth and "Lost Password" questions are treated as fully private.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.3" id="p9.4.3">9.4.3. Information not deemed private</a></h4>
+<p>
+To the extent that information is put into an issued certificate,
+that information is not deemed private,
+as it is expected to be published by the Member as part of routine use of
+the certificate.
+Such information generally includes
+Names, domains, email addresses, and certificate serial numbers.
+</p>
+<p>
+Under Assurance Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>)
+the Member's status (as Assured, Assurer, etc) is available
+to other Members.
+</p>
+<p>
+Information placed in forums outside the online system
+(wiki, blogs, policies, etc) is not deemed private, and is
+generally deemed to be published as contributions by Members.
+See
+CCA1.3 (COD9).
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.4" id="p9.4.4">9.4.4. Responsibility to protect private information</a></h4>
+<p>
+CAcert is a privacy organisation
+and takes privacy more seriously.
+Any privacy issue may be referred to dispute resolution.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.5" id="p9.4.5">9.4.5. Notice and consent to use private information</a></h4>
+<p>
+Members are permitted to rely on certificates of other Members.
+As a direct consequence of the general right to rely,
+Members may read and store the certificates
+and/or the information within them, where duly presented in
+a relationship, and to the extent necessary for
+the agreed relationship.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.6" id="p9.4.6">9.4.6. Disclosure pursuant to judicial or administrative process</a></h4>
+<p>
+Any disclosure pursuant to process from foreign courts
+(or similar)
+is controlled by the Arbitrator.
+</p>
+<h4><a name="p9.4.7" id="p9.4.7">9.4.7. Other information disclosure circumstances</a></h4>
+<p>
+None.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.5" id="p9.5">9.5. Intellectual property rights</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert is committed to the philosophy of
+an open and free Internet,
+broadly as encapsulated by open and free source.
+However, due to the strict control provisions
+imposed by the audit criteria (CCS),
+and the general environment and role of CAs,
+and the commitment to security of Members,
+some deviations are necessary.
+</p>
+
+<!-- <center><a href="http://xkcd.com/225/"> <img src="http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/open_source.png"> </a> </center> -->
+
+<h4><a name="p9.5.1" id="p9.5.1">9.5.1. Ownership and Licence</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Assets that fall under the control of CCS
+must be transferred to CAcert.
+See PoP 6.2
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php#6.2">COD1</a>),
+CCA 1.3
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#1.3">COD9</a>).
+That is, CAcert is free to use, modify,
+distribute, and otherwise conduct the business
+of the CA as CAcert sees fit with the asset.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.5.2" id="p9.5.2">9.5.2. Brand</a></h4>
+<p>
+The brand of CAcert
+is made up of its logo, name, trademark, service marks, etc.
+Use of the brand is strictly limited by the Board,
+and permission is required.
+See <a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/TopMinutes-20070917">
+m20070917.5</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.5.3" id="p9.5.3">9.5.3. Documents</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert owns or requires full control over its documents,
+especially those covered by CCS.
+See PoP 6.2
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php#6.2">COD1</a>).
+Contributors transfer the rights,
+see CCA 1.3
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#1.3">COD9</a>).
+Contributors warrant that they have the right to transfer.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Documents are generally licensed under free and open licence.
+See
+<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/DocumentLicence">
+wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDrafts/DocumentLicence</a>.
+Except where explicitly negotiated,
+CAcert extends back to contributors a
+non-exclusive, unrestricted perpetual
+licence, permitting them to to re-use
+their original work freely.
+See PoP 6.4
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php#6.4">COD1</a>),
+CCA 1.3
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#1.3">COD9</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.5.4" id="p9.5.4">9.5.4. Code</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert owns its code or requires full control over code in use
+by means of a free and open licence.
+See CCS.
+</p>
+
+<p class="q">
+See the (new, wip)
+<a href="http://svn.cacert.cl/Documents/SourceCodeManifesto.html">
+SourceCodeManifesto</a>.
+Maybe this can replace these two paras?
+</p>
+
+<p>
+CAcert licenses its code under GPL.
+CAcert extends back to contributors a
+non-exclusive, unrestricted perpetual
+licence, permitting them to to re-use
+their original work freely.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.5.5" id="p9.5.5">9.5.5. Certificates and Roots</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+CAcert asserts its intellectual property rights over certificates
+issued to Members and over roots.
+See CCA 4.4
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#4.4">COD9</a>),
+CCS.
+The certificates may only be used by Members under
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#4.4">COD9</a>,
+and,
+by others under the licences offered,
+such as
+Non-Related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.6" id="p9.6">9.6. Representations and warranties</a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+<b>Members.</b>
+All Members of the Community agree to the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>),
+which is the primary document for
+representations and warranties.
+Members include Subscribers, Relying Parties,
+Registration Agents and the CA itself.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>RAs.</b>
+Registration Agents are obliged additionally by Assurance Policy,
+especially 3.1, 4.1
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.php">COD13</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>CA.</b>
+The CA is obliged additionally by the CCS.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<b>Third Party Vendors.</b>
+Distributors of the roots are offered the
+<span class="q">wip</span>
+3rd-Party Vendors - Disclaimer and Licence
+(3PV-DaL => CODx)
+and are offered
+<span class="q">wip</span>
+the same deal as Members to the extent that they agree
+to be Members in the Community.
+<span class="q">wip</span>
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.7" id="p9.7">9.7. Disclaimers of Warranties</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Persons who have not accepted the above Agreements are offered the
+Non-Related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>).
+Any representations and
+warranties are strictly limited to nominal usage.
+In essence, NRPs may USE but must not RELY.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In today's aggressive fraud environment,
+and within the context of CAcert as a community CA,
+all parties should understand that CAcert
+and its Subscribers, Assurers and other roles
+provide service on a Best Efforts basis.
+See <a href="#p1.4">&sect;1.4</a>.
+CAcert seeks to provide an adequate minimum
+level of quality in operations for its Members
+without undue risks to NRPs.
+See
+<a href="http://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/principles.html">Principles</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+CAcert on behalf of the Community and itself
+makes no Warranty nor Guarantee nor promise
+that the service or certificates are adequate
+for the needs and circumstances.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.8" id="p9.8">9.8. Limitations of liability</a></h3>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.8.1" id="p9.8.1">9.8.1 Non-Related Persons </a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert on behalf of related parties
+(RAs, Subscribers, etc) and itself
+disclaims all liability to NRPs
+in their usage of CA's certificates.
+See <a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php">COD4</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.8.2" id="p9.8.2">9.8.2 Liabilities Between Members</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Liabilities between Members
+are dealt with by internal dispute resolution,
+which rules on liability and any limits.
+See
+<a href="#9.13">&sect;9.13</a>.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p9.9" id="p9.9">9.9. Indemnities</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.10" id="p9.10">9.10. Term and termination</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p9.10.1" id="p9.10.1">9.10.1. Term</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.10.2" id="p9.10.2">9.10.2. Termination</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+Members file a dispute to terminate their agreement.
+See <a href="#p9.13">&sect;9.13</a> and CCA 3.3
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#3.3">COD9</a>).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Documents are varied (including terminated) under <a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php">COD1</a>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+For termination of the CA, see <a href="#p5.8.1">&sect;5.8.1</a>.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.10.3" id="p9.10.3">9.10.3. Effect of termination and survival</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.11" id="p9.11">9.11. Individual notices and communications with participants</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+All participants are obliged to keep their listed
+primary email addresses in good working order.
+See CCA 3.5
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#3.5">COD9</a>).
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p9.12" id="p9.12">9.12. Amendments</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Amendments to the CPS are controlled by <a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php">COD1</a>.
+Any changes in Member's Agreements are notified under CCA 3.4
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php#3.4">COD9</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.13" id="p9.13">9.13. Dispute resolution provisions</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert provides a forum and facility for any Member
+or other related party to file a dispute.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ The CAcert
+ Dispute Resolution Policy
+ (<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">COD7</a>)
+ includes rules for dispute resolution.
+ </li><li>
+ Filing is done via email to
+ &lt; support AT cacert DOT org &gt;
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+Members agree to file all disputes through CAcert's
+forum for dispute resolution.
+The rules include specific provisions to assist
+non-Members, etc, to file dispute in this forum.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3><a name="p9.14" id="p9.14">9.14. Governing law</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The governing law is that of New South Wales, Australia.
+Disputes are generally heard before the Arbitrator
+under this law.
+Exceptionally, the Arbitrator may elect to apply the
+law of the parties and events, where in common,
+but this is unlikely because it may create results
+that are at odds with the Community.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.15" id="p9.15">9.15. Compliance with Applicable Law</a></h3>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.15.1" id="p9.15.1">9.15.1 Digital Signature Law</a></h3>
+<p>
+The Commonwealth and States of Australia have passed
+various Electronic Transactions Acts that speak to
+digital signatures. In summary, these acts follow
+the "technology neutral" model and permit but do not
+regulate the use of digital signatures.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+This especially means that the signatures created by
+certificates issued by CAcert are not in and of themselves
+legally binding human signatures, at least according to
+the laws of Australia.
+See <a href="#p1.4.3">&sect;1.4.3</a>.
+However, certificates may play a part in larger signing
+applications. See <a href="#p1.4.1">&sect;1.4.1</a> for "digital signing" certificates.
+These applications may impose significant
+obligations, risks and liabilities on the parties.
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.15.2" id="p9.15.2">9.15.2 Privacy Law</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+See the Privacy Policy
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/index.php?id=10">COD5</a>).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.15.3" id="p9.15.3">9.15.3 Legal Process from External Forums</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+CAcert will provide information about
+its Members only under legal subpoena or
+equivalent process
+from a court of competent jurisdiction.
+Any requests made by legal subpoena are
+treated as under the Dispute Resolution Policy
+See
+<a href="#p9.13">&sect;9.13</a>
+and
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">COD7</a>.
+That is, all requests are treated as disputes,
+as only a duly empanelled Arbitrator has the
+authorisation and authority to rule on the
+such requests.
+<p>
+
+<p>
+A subpoena should
+include sufficient legal basis to support
+an Arbitrator in ruling that information
+be released pursuant to the filing,
+including the names of claimants in any civil case
+and an indication as to whether the claimants are
+Members or not
+(and are therefore subject to Dispute Resolution Policy).
+</p>
+
+<h3><a name="p9.16" id="p9.16">9.16. Miscellaneous provisions</a></h3>
+<h4><a name="p9.16.1" id="p9.16.1">9.16.1. Entire agreement</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+All Members of the Community agree to the
+CAcert Community Agreement
+(<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/CAcertCommunityAgreement.php">COD9</a>).
+This agreement also incorporates other key
+documents, being this CPS, DRP and PP.
+See CCA 4.2.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The Configuration-Control Specification
+is the set of policies that rule over the
+Community, of which the above documents are part.
+See COD2.
+Documents that have reached full POLICY status
+are located at
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/">
+www.cacert.org/policy/</a>.
+Although detailed practices may
+be found in other places on the website
+and on the wiki, the CCS documents that
+have reached DRAFT and POLICY status are
+the ruling documents.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.16.2" id="p9.16.2">9.16.2. Assignment</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The rights within CCA may not be ordinarily assigned.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.16.3" id="p9.16.3">9.16.3. Severability</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.16.4" id="p9.16.4">9.16.4. Enforcement (attorneys' fees and waiver of rights)</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator will specify fees and remedies, if any.
+</p>
+
+<h4><a name="p9.16.5" id="p9.16.5">9.16.5. Force Majeure</a></h4>
+
+<p>
+No stipulation.
+</p>
+
+<h2>---This is the end of the Policy---</h2>
+
+
+</body>
+</html>
diff --git a/www/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php b/www/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php
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+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>Dispute Resulution Policy</title>
+</head>
+<body>
+
+<table width="100%">
+
+<tr>
+<td> DRP </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td width="20%"> Teus Hagen </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> POLICY&nbsp;<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/TopMinutes-20070917">m20070919.3</a> </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td>
+ $Date: 2008-01-18 22:56:31 $
+ <!--
+ to get this to work, we have to do this:
+ svn propset svn:keywords "Date" PolicyOnPolicy.html
+ except it does not work through the website.
+ -->
+</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> COD7 </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td> <!-- contributors --> </td>
+</tr>
+
+
+<tr> <!-- title only -->
+<td> </td>
+<td > <b>Dispute&nbsp;Resolution&nbsp;Policy</b> </td>
+<td> </td>
+</tr>
+
+</table>
+
+
+<h2> <a name="0"> 0. </a> Introduction</h2>
+
+<p>
+This is the Dispute Resolution Policy for CAcert.
+Disputes arising out of
+operations by CAcert and interactions between
+users may be addressed through this policy.
+This document also presents the rules for
+resolution of disputes.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="0.1"> 0.1 </a> Nature of Disputes </h3>
+
+<p>
+Disputes include:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Requests for non-routine support actions.
+ CAcert support team has no authority to
+ act outside the normal support facilities made
+ available to Users;
+ </li><li>
+ Classical disputes where a User or another
+ assert claims and demand remedies;
+ </li><li>
+ Requests by external organisations, including
+ legal processes from foreign courts;
+ </li><li>
+ Events initiated for training purposes.
+</li></ul>
+
+<h2> <a name="1"> 1. </a> Filing</h2>
+
+<h3> <a name="1.1"> 1.1 </a> Filing Party</h3>
+<p>
+Anyone may file a dispute.
+In filing, they become <i>Claimants</i>.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="1.2">1.2 </a> Channel for Filing</h3>
+
+<p>
+Disputes are filed by being sent to the normal
+support channel of CAcert,
+and a fee may be payable.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Such fees as are imposed on filing will be specified
+on the dispute resolution page of the website.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="1.3">1.3 </a> Case Manager</h3>
+<p>
+The Case Manager (CM) takes control of the filing.
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ CM makes an initial determination as
+ to whether this filing is a dispute
+ for resolution, or it is a request
+ for routine support.
+ </li><li>
+ CM logs the case and establishes such
+ documentation and communications support as is customary.
+ </li><li>
+ If any party acts immediately on the filing
+ (such as an urgent security action),
+ the CM names these parties to the case.
+ </li><li>
+ CM selects the Arbitrator.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+The personnel within the CAcert support team
+are Case Managers, by default, or as directed
+by the Dispute Resolution Officer.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="1.4">1.4 </a> Contents</h3>
+<p>
+The filing must specify:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ The filing party(s), being the <i>Claimant(s)</i>.
+ </li><li>
+ The party(s) to whom the complaint is addressed to,
+ being the <i>Respondent(s)</i>.
+ This will be CAcert in the
+ case of requests for support actions.
+ It may be a User (possibly unidentified) in the
+ case where one User has given rise to a complaint against another.
+ </li><li>
+ The <i>Complaint</i>.
+ For example, a trademark has been infringed,
+ privacy has been breached,
+ or a user has defrauded using a certificate.
+ </li><li>
+ The action(s) requested by the filing party
+ (technically, called the <i>relief</i>).
+ For example, to delete an account,
+ to revoke a certificate, or to stop a
+ trademark infringement.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+If the filing is inadequate for lack of information
+or for format, the Case Manager
+may refile with the additional information,
+attaching the original messages.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="1.5">1.5 </a> The Arbitrator</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Case Manager selects the Arbitrator according
+to the mechanism managed by the Dispute Resolution Officer
+and approved from time to time.
+This mechanism is to maintain a list of Arbitrators available for
+dispute resolution.
+Each selected Arbitrator has the right to decline the dispute,
+and should decline a dispute with which there exists a conflict
+of interest.
+The reason for declining should be stated.
+If no Arbitrator accepts the dispute, the case is
+closed with status "declined."
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Arbitrators are experienced Assurers of CAcert.
+They should be independent and impartial, including
+of CAcert itself where it becomes a party.
+</p>
+
+<h2> <a name="2"> 2. </a> The Arbitration</h2>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.1">2.1 </a> Authority</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Board of CAcert and the Users vest in Arbitrators
+full authority to hear disputes and deliver rulings
+which are binding on CAcert and the Users.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.2">2.2 </a> Preliminaries</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator conducts some preliminaries:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ The Arbitrator reviews the available documentation
+ and affirms the rules of dispute resolution.
+ Jurisdiction is established, see below.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator affirms the governing law (NSW, Australia).
+ The Arbitrator may select local law and local
+ procedures where Claimants and all Respondents
+ agree, are under such jurisdiction, and it is deemed
+ more appropriate.
+ However, this is strictly limited to those parties,
+ and especially, CAcert and other parties
+ remains under the governing law.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator reviews the Respondents and Claimants
+ with a view to dismissal or joining of additional parties.
+ E.g., support personel may be joined if emergency action was
+ taken.
+ </li><li>
+ Any parties that are not Users and are not bound
+ by the CPS are given the opportunity to enter into
+ CAcert and be bound by the CPS and these rules of arbitration.
+ If these Non-Related Persons (NRPs) remain outside,
+ their rights and remedies under CAcert's policies
+ and forum are strictly limited to that specified in the
+ Non-Related Persons -- Disclaimer and Licence.
+ NRPs may proceed with Arbitration subject to preliminary orders
+ of the Arbitrator.
+ </li><li>
+ Participating Users may not resign until the completion of the case.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator confirms that all parties accept
+ the forum of dispute resolution.
+ This is especially important where a User might be
+ in a country with no Arbitration Act in law, or
+ where there is reason to believe that a party might
+ go to an external court.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator confirms that parties are representing
+ themselves. Parties are entitled to be legally
+ represented, but are not encouraged to do so,
+ bearing in mind the volunteer nature of the
+ organisation and the size of the dispute.
+ If they do so they must declare such, including any
+ changes.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator may appoint experienced Assurers
+ to assist and represent parties, especially for NRPs.
+ The Case Manager must not to provide such assistance.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator is bound to maintain the balance
+ of legal fairness.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator may make any preliminary orders,
+ including protection orders and orders referring
+ to emergency actions already taken.
+ </li><li>
+ The Arbitrator may request any written pleadings,
+ counterclaim, and/or statements of defence.
+</li></ul>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.3">2.3 </a> Jurisdiction </h3>
+
+<p>
+Jurisidiction - the right or power to hear and rule on
+disputes - is initially established by clauses in the
+User agreements for all CAcert Users.
+The agreement must establish:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ That all Parties agree to binding Arbitration
+ in CAcert's forum of dispute resolution;
+ </li><li>
+ for all disputes relating to activities within
+ CAcert, issued certificates, roles and actions, etc;
+ </li><li>
+ as defined by these rules, including the selection
+ of a single Arbitrator;
+ </li><li>
+ under the Law of NSW, Australia; and
+ </li><li>
+ the Parties keep email accounts in good working order.
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+An external court may have ("assert") jurisdiction to decide on
+issues such as trademark, privacy, contract and fraud,
+and may do so with legal remedies.
+These are areas where jurisdiction may need
+to be considered carefully:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Where NRPs, being not members of CAcert and not
+ bound by agreement, are parties to the dispute.
+ E.g., intellectual property disputes may involve
+ NRPs and their trademarks;
+ </li><li>
+ criminal actions or actions likely to result in criminal
+ proceedings,
+ e.g., fraud;
+ </li><li>
+ Contracts between Users that were formed without
+ a clause to seek arbitration in the forum;
+ </li><li>
+ Areas where laws fall outside the Arbitration Act,
+ such as privacy;
+ </li><li>
+ Legal process (subpoenas, etc) delivered by
+ an external court of "competent jurisdiction."
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator must consider jurisdiction and rule on a
+case by case basis whether jurisdiction is asserted,
+either wholly or partially, or declines to hear the case.
+In the event of asserting
+jurisdiction, and a NRP later decides to pursue rights in
+another forum, the Arbitrator should seek the agreement
+of the NRP to file the ruling as part of the new case.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="2.4">2.4 </a> Basis in Law </h3>
+
+<p>
+Each country generally has an Arbitration Act
+that elevates Arbitration as a strong dispute
+resolution forum.
+The Act generally defers to Arbitration
+if the parties have so agreed.
+That is, as Users of CAcert, you agree to resolve
+all disputes before CAcert's forum.
+This is sometimes called <i>private law</i>
+or <i>alternative dispute resolution</i>.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+As a matter of public policy, courts will generally
+refer any case back to Arbitration.
+Users should understand that they will have
+strictly limited rights to ask the courts to
+seek to have a case heard or to override a Ruling.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.5">2.5 </a> External Courts </h3>
+
+<p>
+ When an external court claims and asserts its jurisdiction,
+ and issues a court order, subpoena or other service to CAcert,
+ the CM files the order as a dispute, with the external court
+ as <i>Claimant</i>.
+ The CM and other support staff are granted no authority to
+ act on the basis of any court order, and ordinarily
+ must await the order of the Arbitrator
+ (which might simply be a repeat of the external court order).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+ The Arbitrator establishes the bona fides of the
+ court, and rules.
+ The Arbitrator may rule to reject the order,
+ for jurisdiction or other reasons.
+ By way of example, if all Parties are registered Users,
+ then jurisdiction more normally falls within the forum.
+ If the Arbitrator rules to reject,
+ he should do so only after consulting with CAcert counsel.
+ The Arbitrator's jurisidiction is ordinarily that of
+ dealing with the order, and
+ not that which the external court has claimed to.
+</p>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.6">2.6 </a> Process</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator follows the procedure:
+</p>
+
+
+<ol><li>
+ Establish the facts.
+ The Arbitrator collects the evidence from the parties.
+ The Arbitrator may order CAcert or Users under
+ jurisdiction to provide support or information.
+ The Arbitrator may use email, phone or face-to-face
+ meetings as proceedings.
+ </li><li>
+ Apply the Rules of Dispute Resolution,
+ the policies of CAcert and the governing law.
+ The Arbitrator may request that the parties
+ submit their views.
+ The Arbitrator also works to the mission of CAcert,
+ the benefit of all Users, and the community as a whole.
+ The Arbitrator may any assistance.
+ </li><li>
+ Makes a considered Ruling.
+</li></ol>
+
+<h2> <a name="3"> 3. </a> The Ruling</h2>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.1">3.1 </a> The Contents </h3>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator records:
+</p>
+
+<ol><li>
+ The Identification of the Parties,
+ </li><li>
+ The Facts,
+ </li><li>
+ The logic of the rules and law,
+ </li><li>
+ The directions and actions to be taken by each party
+ (the ruling).
+ </li><li>
+ The date and place that the ruling is rendered.
+</li></ol>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="3.2">3.2 </a> Process </h3>
+<p>
+Once the Ruling is delivered, the case is closed.
+The Case Manager is responsible for recording the
+Ruling, publishing it, and advising users.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Proceedings are ordinarily private.
+The Ruling is ordinarily published,
+within the bounds of the Privacy Policy.
+The Ruling is written in English.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Only under exceptional circumstances can the
+Arbitrator declare the Ruling private <i>under seal</i>.
+Such a declaration must be reviewed in its entirety
+by the Board,
+and the Board must confirm or deny that declaration.
+If it confirms, the existance of any Rulings under seal
+must be published to the Users in a timely manner
+(within days).
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.3">3.3 </a> Binding and Final </h3>
+
+<p>
+The Ruling is binding and final on CAcert and all Users.
+Ordinarily, all Users agree to be bound by this dispute
+resolution policy. Users must declare in the Preliminaries
+any default in agreement or binding.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+If a person who is not a User is a party to the dispute,
+then the Ruling is not binding and final on that person,
+but the Ruling must be presented in filing any dispute
+in another forum such as the person's local courts.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.4">3.4 </a> Re-opening the Case or Appeal </h3>
+
+<p>
+In the case of clear injustices, egregious behaviour or
+unconscionable Rulings, parties may seek to re-open the
+case by filing a dispute. The new Arbitrator
+reviews the new dispute,
+re-examines and reviews the entire case, then rules on
+whether the case may be re-opened or not.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+If the new Arbitrator rules the case be re-opened,
+then it is referred to the Board of CAcert Inc.
+The Board hears the case and delivers a final
+and binding Ruling.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.5">3.5 </a> Liability </h3>
+
+<p>
+All liability of the Arbitrator for any act in
+connection with deciding a dispute is excluded
+by all parties, provided such act does not constitute
+an intentional breach of duty.
+All liability of the Arbitrators, CAcert, its officers and its
+employees (including Case Manager)
+for any other act or omission in connection with
+arbitration proceedings is excluded, provided such acts do not
+constitute an intentional or grossly negligent breach of duty.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The above provisions may only be overridden by
+appeal process (by means of a new dispute causing
+referral to the Board).
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.6">3.6 </a> Remedies </h3>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator generally instructs using internal remedies,
+that is ones that are within the general domain of CAcert,
+but there are some external remedies at his disposal.
+He may rule and instruct any of the parties on these issues.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ "community service" typically including
+ <ul><li>
+ attend and assure people at trade shows / open source gatherings,
+ </li><li>
+ writing documentation
+ </li><li>
+ serve in role - support, dispute arbitration
+ </li></ul>
+ or others as decided.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Fined by loss of assurance points, which may result
+ in losing Assurer or Assured status.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Retraining in role.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Revoking of any certificates.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Monetary fine up to the liability cap established for
+ each party as described in the Registered User Agreement.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Exclusion from community.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Reporting to applicable authorities.
+
+ </li><li>
+ Changes to policies and procedures.
+
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+The Arbitrator is not limited within the general domain
+of CAcert, and may instruct novel remedies as seen fit.
+Novel remedies outside the domain may be routinely
+confirmed by the Board by way of appeals process,
+in order to establish precedent.
+</p>
+
+<h2> <a name="4"> 4. </a> Appendix</h2>
+
+
+<h3> <a name="4.1">4.1 </a> The Advantages of this Forum </h3>
+<p>
+The advantage of this process for Users is:
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ CAcert and Users operate across many jurisdictions.
+ Arbitration allows us to select a single set of
+ rules across all jurisdictions.
+ </li><li>
+ Arbitration allows CAcert to appropriately separate
+ out the routine support actions from difficult dispute
+ actions. Support personnel have no authority to
+ act, the appropriately selected Arbitrator has all
+ authority to act.
+ Good governance is thus maintained.
+ </li><li>
+ This forum allows CAcert Users to look after themselves
+ in a community, without exposing each other to potentially
+ disastrous results in strange courts from foreign lands.
+ </li><li>
+ By volunteering to resolve things "in-house" the costs
+ are reduced.
+ </li><li>
+ Even simple support issues such as password changing
+ can be improved by treating as a dispute. A clear
+ chain of request, analysis, ruling and action can be established.
+ </li><li>
+ CAcert Assurers can develop the understanding and the rules
+ for sorting out own problems far better than courts or
+ other external agencies.
+</li></ul>
+
+<h3> <a name="4.2">4.2 </a> The Disadvantages of this Forum </h3>
+
+<p>
+Some disadvantages exist.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ Users may have their rights trampled over.
+ In such a case, the community should strive to
+ re-open the case and refer it to the board.
+ </li><li>
+ Users may feel overwhelmed by the formality
+ of the process.
+ It is kept formal so as to establish good and proper
+ authority to act; otherwise, support and other
+ people in power may act without thought and with
+ damaging consequences.
+ </li><li>
+ A country may not have an Arbitration Act.
+ In that case, the parties should enter into
+ spirit of the forum.
+ If they choose to break that spirit,
+ they should also depart the community.
+</li></ul>
+
+<h3> <a name="4.3">4.3 </a> Process and Flow </h3>
+
+<p>
+To the extent reasonable, the Arbitrator conducts
+the arbitration as with any legal proceedings.
+This means that the process and style should follow
+legal tradition.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+However, the Arbitrator is unlikely to be trained in
+law. Hence, common sense must be applied, and the
+Arbitrator has wide latitude to rule on any particular
+motion, pleading, submission. The Arbitrator's ruling
+is final within the arbitration.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Note also that many elements of legal proceedings are
+deliberately left out of the rules.
+</p>
+
+</body>
+</html>
diff --git a/www/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php b/www/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6dbc647
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/NRPDisclaimerAndLicence.php
@@ -0,0 +1,99 @@
+<?php
+loadem("index");
+$id = intval($id);
+//showheader(_("CAcert - Non-Related Persons - Disclaimer and Licence"));
+?>
+
+<table border="1" bgcolor="#EEEEEE"><tr><td>
+
+<h1 align="center"> <?=_("Non-Related Persons")?> </h1>
+<h2 align="center"> <?=_("(Disclaimer and Licence)")?> </h2>
+
+
+<h2> <?=_("Definitions")?> </h2>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("This is a Disclaimer and Licence from
+<u> CAcert Inc </u>,
+the 'issuer',
+to you, the 'user',
+being a general user of the Internet.")?>
+</p>
+
+<h2> Disclaimer </h2>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("The issuer has no other agreement with you,
+and has no control nor knowledge
+as to how you intend to use the products of the issuer.
+You alone take on all of the risk and all of the
+liability of your usage.
+The issuer makes no guarantee, warranty nor promise to you.")?>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("Therefore, to the fullest extent possible in law,
+<b>ISSUER DISCLAIMS ALL LIABILITY TO YOU</b>
+on behalf of itself and its related parties.")?>
+</p>
+
+<h2> <?=_("Licence")?> </h2>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("This licence offers you a non-exclusive, non-transferable
+'PERMISSION TO USE' certificates issued by issuer.")?>
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ <?=_("You may 'USE' the certificates as facilitated
+ by your software. For example,
+ you may construct connections, read emails,
+ load code or otherwise, as facilitated by your
+ software.")?>
+ </li><li>
+ <?=_("You may NOT RELY on any statements or claims
+ made by the certificates or implied in any way.")?>
+ </li><li>
+ <?=_("If your software is licensed under a separate
+ third party agreement, it may be permitted
+ to make statements or claims based on the certificates.
+ You may NOT RELY on these statements or claims.")?>
+ </li><li>
+ <?=_("You may NOT distribute certificates or root keys
+ under this licence, nor make representation
+ about them.")?>
+</li></ul>
+
+</td></tr></table>
+
+<h2> <?=_("Alternatives")?> </h2>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("If you find the terms of the above
+Non-Related Persons
+Disclaimer and Licence
+difficult or inadequate for your use, you may wish to")?>
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ <?=sprintf(_("As an individual,
+ %sregister with issuer%s
+ and enter into the user agreement.
+ This is free."),"<a href='https://www.cacert.org/index.php?id=1'>","</a>")?>
+ </li><li>
+ <?=_("As a Third Party Distributor,
+ enter into a separate third party agreement
+ with issuer.")?>
+ </li><li>
+ <?=_("Delete issuer's roots from your software.
+ Your software documentation should give
+ directions and assistance for this.")?>
+</li></ul>
+
+<p>
+<?=_("These alternatives are outside the above
+Non-Related Persons Disclaimer and Licence
+and do not incorporate.")?>
+</p>
+
+
diff --git a/www/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php b/www/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7d8699c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/OrganisationAssurancePolicy.php
@@ -0,0 +1,379 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+
+<html>
+<head><title>Organisation Assurance Policy</title></head>
+<body>
+
+<table width="100%">
+
+<tr>
+<td> OAP </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td width="20%"> Jens </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> POLICY&nbsp;<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/TopMinutes-20070917">m20070918.x</a> </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td>
+ $Date: 2008-01-18 22:56:31 $
+ <!--
+ to get this to work, we have to do this:
+ svn propset svn:keywords "Date" file.html
+ except it does not work through the website.
+ -->
+</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> COD11 </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td> </td>
+</tr>
+
+
+<tr>
+<td> </td>
+<td > <b>Organisation&nbsp;Assurance&nbsp;Policy</b> </td>
+<td> </td>
+</tr>
+
+</table>
+
+
+
+<h2> <a name="0"> 0. </a> Preliminaries </h2>
+
+<p>
+This policy describes how Organisation Assurers ("OAs")
+conduct Assurances on Organisations.
+It fits within the overall web-of-trust
+or Assurance process of Cacert.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+This policy is not a Controlled document, for purposes of
+Configuration Control Specification ("CCS").
+</p>
+
+<h2> <a name="1"> 1. </a> Purpose </h2>
+
+<p>
+Organisations with assured status can issue certificates
+directly with their own domains within.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The purpose and statement of the certificate remains
+the same as with ordinary users (natural persons)
+and as described in the CPS.
+</p>
+
+<ul><li>
+ The organisation named within is identified.
+ </li><li>
+ The organisation has been verified according
+ to this policy.
+ </li><li>
+ The organisation is within the jurisdiction
+ and can be taken to Arbitration.
+</li></ul>
+
+
+<h2> <a name="2"> 2. </a> Roles and Structure </h2>
+
+<h3> <a name="2.1"> 2.1 </a> Assurance Officer </h3>
+
+<p>
+The Assurance Officer ("AO")
+manages this policy and reports to the board.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The AO manages all OAs and is responsible for process,
+the CAcert Organisation Assurance Programme form ("COAP"),
+OA training and testing, manuals, quality control.
+In these responsibilities, other Officers will assist.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="2.2"> 2.2 </a> Organisation Assurers </h3>
+
+<p>
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"> <li>
+ An OA must be an experienced Assurer
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li>Have 150 assurance points.</li>
+ <li>Be fully trained and tested on all general Assurance processes.</li>
+ </ol>
+
+ </li><li>
+ Must be trained as Organisation Assurer.
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li> Global knowledge: This policy. </li>
+ <li> Global knowledge: A OA manual covers how to do the process.</li>
+ <li> Local knowledge: legal forms of organisations within jurisdiction.</li>
+ <li> Basic governance. </li>
+ <li> Training may be done a variety of ways,
+ such as on-the-job, etc. </li>
+ </ol>
+
+ </li><li>
+ Must be tested.
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li> Global test: Covers this policy and the process. </li>
+ <li> Local knowledge: Subsidiary Policy to specify.</li>
+ <li> Tests to be created, approved, run, verified
+ by CAcert only (not outsourced). </li>
+ <li> Tests are conducted manually, not online/automatic. </li>
+ <li> Documentation to be retained. </li>
+ <li> Tests may include on-the-job components. </li>
+ </ol>
+
+ </li><li>
+ Must be approved.
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li> Two supervising OAs must sign-off on new OA,
+ as trained, tested and passed.
+ </li>
+ <li> AO must sign-off on a new OA,
+ as supervised, trained and tested.
+ </li>
+ </ol>
+</ol>
+
+
+
+<h3> <a name="2.3"> 2.3 </a> Organisation Administrator </h3>
+
+<p>
+The Administrator within each Organisation ("O-Admin")
+is the one who handles the assurance requests
+and the issuing of certificates.
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"> <li>
+ O-Admin must be Assurer
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li>Have 100 assurance points.</li>
+ <li>Fully trained and tested as Assurer.</li>
+ </ol>
+
+ </li><li>
+ Organisation is required to appoint O-Admin,
+ and appoint ones as required.
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li> On COAP Request Form.</li>
+ </ol>
+
+ </li><li>
+ O-Admin must work with an assigned OA.
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li> Have contact details.</li>
+ </ol>
+</ol>
+
+
+<h2> <a name="3"> 3. </a> Policies </h2>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.1"> 3.1 </a> Policy </h3>
+
+<p>
+There is one policy being this present document,
+and several subsidiary policies.
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a">
+ <li> This policy authorises the creation of subsidiary policies. </li>
+ <li> This policy is international. </li>
+ <li> Subsidiary policies are implementations of the policy. </li>
+ <li> Organisations are assured under an appropriate subsidiary policy. </li>
+</ol>
+
+<h3> <a name="3.2"> 3.2 </a> Subsidiary Policies </h3>
+
+<p>
+The nature of the Subsidiary Policies ("SubPols"):
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ SubPols are purposed to check the organisation
+ under the rules of the jurisdiction that creates the
+ organisation. This does not evidence an intention
+ by CAcert to
+ enter into the local jurisdiction, nor an intention
+ to impose the rules of that jurisdiction over any other
+ organisation.
+ CAcert assurances are conducted under the jurisdiction
+ of CAcert.
+ </li><li>
+ For OAs,
+ SubPol specifies the <i>tests of local knowledge</i>
+ including the local organisational forms.
+ </li><li>
+ For assurances,
+ SubPol specifies the <i>local documentation forms</i>
+ which are acceptable under this SubPol to meet the
+ standard.
+ </li><li>
+ SubPols are subjected to the normal
+ policy approval process.
+</li></ol>
+
+<h3> <a name=""> </a> 3.3 Freedom to Assemble </h3>
+
+<p>
+Subsidiary Policies are open, accessible and free to enter.
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ SubPols compete but are compatible.
+ </li><li>
+ No SubPol is a franchise.
+ </li><li>
+ Many will be on State or National lines,
+ reflecting the legal
+ tradition of organisations created
+ ("incorporated") by states.
+ </li><li>
+ However, there is no need for strict national lines;
+ it is possible to have 2 SubPols in one country, or one
+ covering several countries with the same language
+ (e.g., Austria with Germany, England with Wales but not Scotland).
+ </li><li>
+ There could also be SubPols for special
+ organisations, one person organisations,
+ UN agencies, churches, etc.
+ </li><li>
+ Where it is appropriate to use the SubPol
+ in another situation (another country?), it
+ can be so approved.
+ (e.g., Austrian SubPol might be approved for Germany.)
+ The SubPol must record this approval.
+</li></ol>
+
+
+<h2> <a name="4"> 4. </a> Process </h2>
+
+<h3> <a name="4.1"> 4.1 </a> Standard of Organisation Assurance </h3>
+<p>
+The essential standard of Organisation Assurance is:
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ the organisation exists
+ </li><li>
+ the organisation name is correct and consistent:
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li>in official documents specified in SubPol.</li>
+ <li>on COAP form.</li>
+ <li>in CAcert database.</li>
+ <li>form or type of legal entity is consistent</li>
+ </ol>
+ </li><li>
+ signing rights:
+ requestor can sign on behalf of the organisation.
+ </li><li>
+ the organisation has agreed to the terms of the
+ Registered User Agreement,
+ and is therefore subject to Arbitration.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+ Acceptable documents to meet above standard
+ are stated in the SubPol.
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="4.2"> 4.2 </a> COAP </h3>
+<p>
+The COAP form documents the checks and the resultant
+assurance results to meet the standard.
+Additional information to be provided on form:
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ CAcert account of O-Admin (email address?)
+ </li><li>
+ location:
+ <ol type="i">
+ <li>country (MUST).</li>
+ <li>city (MUST).</li>
+ <li>additional contact information (as required by SubPol).</li>
+ </ol>
+ </li><li>
+ administrator account names (1 or more)
+ </li><li>
+ domain name(s)
+ </li><li>
+ Agreement with registered user agreement.
+ Statement and initials box for organsation
+ and also for OA.
+ </li><li>
+ Date of completion of Assurance.
+ Records should be maintained for 7 years from
+ this date.
+</li></ol>
+
+<p>
+The COAP should be in English. Where translations
+are provided, they should be matched to the English,
+and indication provided that the English is the
+ruling language (due to Arbitration requirements).
+</p>
+
+<h3> <a name="4.3"> 4.3 </a> Jurisdiction </h3>
+
+<p>
+Organisation Assurances are carried out by
+CAcert Inc under its Arbitration jurisdiction.
+Actions carried out by OAs are under this regime.
+</p>
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ The organisation has agreed to the terms of the
+ Registered User Agreement,
+ </li><li>
+ The organisation, the Organisation Assurers, CAcert and
+ other related parties are bound into CAcert's jurisdiction
+ and dispute resolution.
+ </li><li>
+ The OA is responsible for ensuring that the
+ organisation reads, understands, intends and
+ agrees to the registered user agreement.
+ This OA responsibility should be recorded on COAP
+ (statement and initials box).
+</li></ol>
+
+<h2> <a name="5"> 5. </a> Exceptions </h2>
+
+
+<ol type="a"><li>
+ <b> Conflicts of Interest.</b>
+ An OA must not assure an organisation in which
+ there is a close or direct relationship by, e.g.,
+ employment, family, financial interests.
+ Other conflicts of interest must be disclosed.
+ </li><li>
+ <b> Trusted Third Parties.</b>
+ TTPs are not generally approved to be part of
+ organisation assurance,
+ but may be approved by subsidiary policies according
+ to local needs.
+ </li><li>
+ <b>Exceptional Organisations.</b>
+ (e.g., Vatican, International Space Station, United Nations)
+ can be dealt with as a single-organisation
+ SubPol.
+ The OA creates the checks, documents them,
+ and subjects them to to normal policy approval.
+ </li><li>
+ <b>DBA.</b>
+ Alternative names for organisations
+ (DBA, "doing business as")
+ can be added as long as they are proven independently.
+ E.g., registration as DBA or holding of registered trade mark.
+ This means that the anglo law tradition of unregistered DBAs
+ is not accepted without further proof.
+</li></ol>
+
diff --git a/www/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php b/www/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php
@@ -0,0 +1,287 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+
+<html>
+<head><title>Policy on Policy</title></head>
+<body>
+
+<table width="100%">
+
+<tr>
+<td> PoP </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td width="20%"> Iang </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> POLICY&nbsp;<a href="http://wiki.cacert.org/wiki/PolicyDecisions">p200800204.1</a> </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td>
+ 20080309
+</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr>
+<td> COD1 </td>
+<td> </td>
+<td> </td>
+</tr>
+
+
+<tr>
+<td> </td>
+<td > <b>Policy&nbsp;on&nbsp;Policy</b> </td>
+<td> </td>
+</tr>
+
+</table>
+
+<h2> 0. Preliminaries </h2>
+<p>
+ Policy on Policy adopts the IETF model of
+ 'rough consensus' to create CAcert documents
+ within the open [policy] mail list forum.
+</p>
+
+
+<h2> 1. Scope and Purpose </h2>
+
+<p>
+1.1
+This policy documents and controls the process by which
+CAcert creates and promulgates policies.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+1.2
+The policy covers itself.
+The policy replaces prior ones.
+For Audit purposes,
+the policy is part of the Configuration-Control Specification
+("CCS", <a href="http://rossde.com/CA_review/CA_review_A.html#A1">DRC_A.1</a>)
+and also documents part of the CCS.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+1.3
+The policies so created are generally binding on
+CAcert, registered users and related parties.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+1.4
+The Policy Officer manages all policies
+and the policy group.
+The policy group is formed on the open mailing list
+known as [policy], and is to be open to all
+Community Members of CAcert.
+</p>
+
+<h2> 2. Basic Model </h2>
+
+<p>
+2.1
+The basic concept was drawn from the IETF model.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+2.2
+Policies are documented.
+Documents start as <i>Work-In-Progress</i>, move through to
+<i>DRAFT</i> and finalise in <i>POLICY</i> status.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+2.3
+Decisions are taken by "Rough Consensus."
+A vote may be called to clarify.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+2.4
+Documents should include a minimum of information
+in a standardised format managed by the Documentation Officer:
+the Title,
+short name,
+Document Status,
+date the Status was reached,
+Editor,
+date / time of the last edit,
+Abstract.
+</p>
+
+<h2> 3. Work-In-Progress </h2>
+
+<p>
+3.1
+An Editor is identified.
+This person is responsible for
+drafting the document, following the consensus of the policy group.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+3.2
+The Policy Officer resolves minor disputes and keeps order.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+3.3
+The mail list of the policy group
+is used as the primary debating
+forum. A sub-group may be formed,
+but decision-taking
+should be visible on the main group.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+3.4
+Documents start with the status of
+"Work-In-Progress" or WIP for short.
+</p>
+
+
+<h2> 4. DRAFT status </h2>
+
+<p>
+4.1
+On completion, a document moves to DRAFT status.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+4.2
+A DRAFT is a policy-in-effect for the Community and is
+to be distributed and treated as such.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+4.3
+As far as the Community is concerned, the DRAFT is policy.
+Challenges and concerns can be addressed to the policy group,
+and policy group discussions on a DRAFT
+may be presented in Dispute Resolution.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+4.4
+Revisions of DRAFTs
+must be treated as decisions on the policy group.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+4.5
+The period of the DRAFT status is announced widely,
+which should be at least a month and no longer than a year.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+4.6
+During the period of DRAFT,
+CAcert Inc. retains a veto over
+policies that effect the running of CAcert Inc.
+</p>
+
+
+<h2> 5. POLICY status </h2>
+<p>
+5.1
+After DRAFT period has elapsed with no revision beyond
+minor and editorial changes,
+there should be a decision
+to move the document from
+DRAFT to POLICY status.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+5.2
+Once POLICY, the Community may only challenge the document
+in Dispute Resolution.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+5.3
+Policy group may propose changes to a POLICY document
+in order to update it. When changes move to DRAFT status,
+they may be included in the POLICY document,
+but must be clearly indicated within as DRAFT not POLICY.
+</p>
+
+<h2> 6. Open Process </h2>
+
+<p>
+6.1
+All policy discussions and documents should be open
+processes. There should be a fair chance for
+the Community
+to have their views heard.
+Rough Consensus is the working metric.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+6.2
+Contributions to
+formally controlled documents such as Policies
+are transferred fully to CAcert Inc.
+Copyrights
+and similar intellectual property rights
+required to incorporate the Contribution
+are either transferred to CAcert Inc, or,
+are issued and contributed under free,
+open, non-restrictive,
+irrevocable, exclusive,
+and clear licence to CAcert Inc.
+In all cases, CAcert Inc licenses the
+contributions back to the community
+under an open licence.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+6.3
+Contributors declare any conflicts of interest.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+6.4
+Policies should be issued under free, open,
+non-restrictive,
+irrevocable, non-exclusive,
+and clear licence by CAcert, Inc.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+6.5
+Mailing lists should be archived,
+and important meetings should be minuted.
+</p>
+
+<h2> 7. Disputes. </h2>
+
+<p>
+7.1
+Any questions not resolved by these rules
+may be voted on in the policy group, or
+may be dealt with in Dispute Resolution.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+7.2
+The Policy Officer may decide a tight vote in a minor matter only.
+Failure of Rough Consensus may be declared by
+dissenting members.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+7.3
+Matters unresolved refer back
+to further group discussion.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+7.4
+The external avenue for disputes is to file a dispute
+according to CAcert's
+<a href="http://www.cacert.org/policy/DisputeResolutionPolicy.php">
+Dispute Resolution Policy</a>
+DRP => COD7.
+</p>
+
+</body>
+</html>
diff --git a/www/policy/cacert-draft.png b/www/policy/cacert-draft.png
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/cacert-draft.png
Binary files differ
diff --git a/www/policy/index.php b/www/policy/index.php
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/www/policy/index.php
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+<? /*
+ LibreSSL - CAcert web application
+ Copyright (C) 2004-2008 CAcert Inc.
+
+ This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
+*/
+loadem("index");
+showheader(_("CAcert - Policies"));
+?>
+
+<h1>CAcert Policies</h1>
+<ul>
+<?php
+
+foreach (glob("*.php") as $filename)
+{
+ if($filename != "index.php")
+ {
+ echo "<li><a href='$filename'>$filename</a></li>\n";
+ }
+}
+
+
+?>
+</ul>
+</body>
+</html>