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[cacert-devel.git] / www / policy / DisputeResolutionPolicy.php
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7 <title>Dispute Resulution Policy</title>
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51 <div class="comment">
52 <table width="100%">
53
54 <tr>
55 <td>
56 Name: DRP <a style="color: steelblue" href="//svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Policies/ControlledDocumentList.html">COD7</a><br />
57 Status: POLICY <a style="color: steelblue" href="//wiki.cacert.org/wiki/TopMinutes-20070917">m20070919.3</a><br />
58 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span class="draftadd">DRAFT p20110108 p20121213</span> <br />
59 Editor: <a style="color: steelblue" href="//wiki.cacert.org/TeusHagen">Teus Hagen
60 </a><br />
61 Licence: <a style="color: steelblue" href="//wiki.cacert.org/Policy#Licence" title="this document is Copyright &copy; CAcert Inc., licensed openly under CC-by-sa with all disputes resolved under DRP. More at wiki.cacert.org/Policy" > CC-by-sa+DRP </a><br /></td>
62 <td valign="top" align="right">
63 <a href="//www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php"><img src="images/cacert-policy.png" alt="TTP-Assist Status - POLICY" height="31" width="88" style="border-style: none;" /></a><br />
64 <a href="//www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.php"><img src="images/cacert-draft.png" alt="TTP-Assist Status - DRAFT" height="31" width="88" style="border-style: none;" /></a>
65
66 </td>
67 </tr>
68 </table>
69 </div>
70
71
72 <h1> Dispute&nbsp;Resolution&nbsp;Policy </h1>
73
74 <h2 id="s0"> 0. Introduction</h2>
75
76 <p>
77 This is the Dispute Resolution Policy
78 <span class="draftdrop">for CAcert</span>
79 <span class="draftadd">for the CAcert Community, consisting of CAcert Inc and Members who agree to the CAcert Community Agreement (CCA)</span>.
80 Disputes arising out of
81 operations by CAcert
82 <span class="draftadd">Inc</span>
83 and interactions between
84 <span class="draftadd">
85 Members
86 </span>
87 may be addressed through this policy.
88 This document also presents the rules for
89 resolution of disputes.
90 </p>
91
92 <h3 id="s0.1"> 0.1 Nature of Disputes </h3>
93
94 <p>
95 Disputes include:
96 </p>
97
98 <ul><li>
99 Requests for non-routine support actions.
100 CAcert support team has no authority to
101 act outside the normal support facilities made
102 available to
103 <span class="draftadd">
104 Members;
105 </span>
106 </li><li>
107 Classical disputes where a <span class="draftadd">Member</span> or another
108 assert claims and demand remedies;
109 </li><li>
110 Requests by external organisations, including
111 legal processes from foreign courts;
112 </li><li>
113 Events initiated for training purposes.
114 </li></ul>
115
116 <h2 id="s1"> 1. Filing</h2>
117
118 <h3 id="s1.1"> 1.1 Filing Party</h3>
119 <p>
120 Anyone may file a dispute.
121 In filing, they become <i>Claimants</i>.
122 </p>
123
124 <h3 id="s1.2"> 1.2 Channel for Filing</h3>
125
126 <p>
127 Disputes are filed by being sent to the normal
128 support channel of CAcert,
129 and a fee may be payable.
130 </p>
131
132 <p>
133 Such fees as are imposed on filing will be specified
134 on the dispute resolution page of the website.
135 </p>
136
137 <h3 id="s1.3"> 1.3 Case Manager</h3>
138 <p>
139 The Case Manager (CM) takes control of the filing.
140 </p>
141
142 <ol><li>
143 CM makes an initial determination as
144 to whether this filing is a dispute
145 for resolution, or it is a request
146 for routine support.
147 </li><li>
148 CM logs the case and establishes such
149 documentation and communications support as is customary.
150 </li><li>
151 If any party acts immediately on the filing
152 (such as an urgent security action),
153 the CM names these parties to the case.
154 </li><li>
155 CM selects the Arbitrator.
156 </li></ol>
157
158 <p>
159 The personnel within the CAcert support team
160 are Case Managers, by default, or as directed
161 by the Dispute Resolution Officer <span class="change2">(DRO)</span>.
162 </p>
163
164 <h3 id="s1.4"> 1.4 Contents</h3>
165 <p>
166 The filing must specify:
167 </p>
168
169 <ul><li>
170 The filing party(s), being the <i>Claimant(s)</i>.
171 </li><li>
172 The party(s) to whom the complaint is addressed to,
173 being the <i>Respondent(s)</i>.
174 This will be CAcert in the
175 case of requests for support actions.
176 It may be a <span class="draftadd">Member</span> (possibly unidentified) in the
177 case where one <span class="draftadd">Member</span> has given rise to a complaint against another.
178 </li><li>
179 The <i>Complaint</i>.
180 For example, a trademark has been infringed,
181 privacy has been breached,
182 or a <span class="draftadd">Member</span> has defrauded using a certificate.
183 </li><li>
184 The action(s) requested by the filing party
185 (technically, called the <i>relief</i>).
186 For example, to delete an account,
187 to revoke a certificate, or to stop a
188 trademark infringement.
189 </li></ul>
190
191 <p>
192 If the filing is inadequate for lack of information
193 or for format, the Case Manager
194 may refile with the additional information,
195 attaching the original messages.
196 </p>
197
198 <h3 id="s1.5"> 1.5 The Arbitrator</h3>
199
200 <p>
201 The Case Manager selects the Arbitrator according
202 to the mechanism managed by the
203 <span class="change2">DRO</span> <!-- Dispute Resolution Officer -->
204 and approved from time to time.
205 This mechanism is to maintain a list of Arbitrators available for
206 dispute resolution.
207 Each selected Arbitrator has the right to decline the dispute,
208 and should decline a dispute with which there exists a conflict
209 of interest.
210 The reason for declining should be stated.
211 If no Arbitrator accepts the dispute, the case is
212 closed with status "declined."
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Arbitrators are experienced Assurers <span class="draftdrop">of CAcert</span>.
217 They should be independent and impartial, including
218 of CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> itself where it becomes a party.
219 </p>
220
221 <h2 id="s2"> 2. The Arbitration</h2>
222
223
224 <h3 id="s2.1"> 2.1 Authority</h3>
225
226 <p>
227 The Board of CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> and the
228 <span class="draftadd">
229 Members of the Community
230 </span>
231 vest in Arbitrators
232 full authority to hear disputes and deliver rulings
233 which are binding on CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> and the
234 <span class="draftadd">
235 Members.
236 </span>
237 </p>
238
239
240 <h3 id="s2.2"> 2.2 Preliminaries</h3>
241
242 <p>
243 The Arbitrator conducts some preliminaries:
244 </p>
245
246 <ul><li>
247 The Arbitrator reviews the available documentation
248 and affirms the rules of dispute resolution.
249 Jurisdiction is established, see below.
250 </li><li>
251 The Arbitrator affirms the governing law (NSW, Australia).
252 The Arbitrator may select local law and local
253 procedures where Claimants and all Respondents
254 agree, are under such jurisdiction, and it is deemed
255 more appropriate.
256 However, this is strictly limited to those parties,
257 and especially, CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> and other parties
258 remain under the governing law.
259 </li><li>
260 The Arbitrator reviews the Respondents and Claimants
261 with a view to dismissal or joining of additional parties.
262 E.g., support personnel may be joined if emergency action was
263 taken.
264 </li><li>
265 Any parties that are not
266 <span class="draftadd">
267 Members
268 </span>
269 and are not bound by the
270 <span class="draftdrop">CPS</span> <span class="draftadd">CCA</span>
271 are given the opportunity to enter into
272 CAcert and be bound by the
273 <span class="draftdrop">CPS</span> <span class="draftadd">CCA</span>
274 and these rules of arbitration.
275 If
276 <!-- <span class="draftdrop">these Non-Related Persons (NRPs)</span> <span class="change">they</span> -->
277 these Non-Related Persons (NRPs)
278 remain outside,
279 their rights and remedies under CAcert's policies
280 and forum are strictly limited to
281 <span class="strike">that</span> <span class="change2">those</span>
282 specified in the
283 <span class="draftdrop">Non-Related Persons -- Disclaimer and Licence</span> <span class="draftadd">Root Distribution License</span>.
284 NRPs
285 may proceed with Arbitration subject to preliminary orders
286 of the Arbitrator.
287 </li><li>
288 Participating
289 <span class="draftadd">
290 Members
291 </span>
292 may not resign
293 <span class="change2">
294 from the Community
295 </span>
296 until the completion of the case.
297 </li><li>
298 The Arbitrator confirms that all parties accept
299 the forum of dispute resolution.
300 This is especially important where a
301 <span class="draftadd">
302 Member
303 </span>
304 might be
305 in a country with no Arbitration Act in law, or
306 where there is reason to believe that a party might
307 go to an external court.
308 </li><li>
309 The Arbitrator confirms that parties are representing
310 themselves. Parties are entitled to be legally
311 represented, but are not encouraged to do so,
312 bearing in mind the volunteer nature of the
313 organisation and the size of the dispute.
314 If they do so<span class="change2">,</span>
315 they must declare such, including any changes.
316 </li><li>
317 The Arbitrator may appoint experienced Assurers
318 to assist and represent parties, especially for NRPs.
319 The Case Manager must not provide such assistance.
320 </li><li>
321 The Arbitrator is bound to maintain the balance
322 of legal fairness.
323 </li><li>
324 The Arbitrator may make any preliminary orders,
325 including protection orders and orders referring
326 to emergency actions already taken.
327 </li><li>
328 The Arbitrator may request any written pleadings,
329 counterclaims, and/or statements of defence.
330 </li></ul>
331
332
333 <h3 id="s2.3"> 2.3 Jurisdiction </h3>
334
335 <p>
336 Jurisdiction - the right or power to hear and rule on
337 disputes - is initially established by clauses in the
338 <span class="draftadd">
339 CAcert Community Agreement.
340 </span>
341 The agreement must establish:
342 </p>
343
344 <ul><li>
345 That all Parties agree to binding Arbitration
346 in CAcert's forum of dispute resolution;
347 </li><li>
348 for all disputes relating to activities within
349 CAcert, issued certificates, roles and actions, etc;
350 </li><li>
351 as defined by these rules, including the selection
352 of a single Arbitrator;
353 </li><li>
354 under the Law of NSW, Australia; and
355 </li><li>
356 the Parties keep email accounts in good working order.
357 </li></ul>
358
359 <p>
360 An external court may have ("assert") jurisdiction to decide on
361 issues such as trademark, privacy, contract and fraud,
362 and may do so with legal remedies.
363 These are areas where jurisdiction may need
364 to be considered carefully:
365 </p>
366
367 <ul><li>
368 Where NRPs, being not Members of CAcert and not
369 bound by agreement, are parties to the dispute.
370 E.g., intellectual property disputes may involve
371 NRPs and their trademarks;
372 </li><li>
373 criminal actions or actions likely to result in criminal
374 proceedings,
375 e.g., fraud;
376 </li><li>
377 Contracts between
378 <span class="draftadd">
379 Members
380 </span>
381 that were formed without
382 a clause to seek arbitration in the forum;
383 </li><li>
384 Areas where laws fall outside the Arbitration Act,
385 such as privacy;
386 </li><li>
387 Legal process (subpoenas, etc) delivered by
388 an external court of "competent jurisdiction."
389 </li></ul>
390
391 <p>
392 The Arbitrator must consider jurisdiction and rule on a
393 case by case basis whether jurisdiction is asserted,
394 either wholly or partially, or declines to hear the case.
395 In the event of asserting
396 jurisdiction, and a NRP later decides to pursue rights in
397 another forum, the Arbitrator should seek the agreement
398 of the NRP to file the ruling as part of the new case.
399 </p>
400
401 <h3 id="s2.4"> 2.4 Basis in Law </h3>
402
403 <p>
404 Each country generally has an Arbitration Act
405 that elevates Arbitration as a strong dispute
406 resolution forum.
407 The Act generally defers to Arbitration
408 if the parties have so agreed.
409 That is, as
410 <span class="draftadd">
411 Members
412 </span>
413 <span class="draftdrop">users of CAcert</span>,
414 you agree to resolve
415 all disputes before CAcert's forum.
416 This is sometimes called <i>private law</i>
417 or <i>alternative dispute resolution</i>.
418 </p>
419
420 <p>
421 As a matter of public policy, courts will generally
422 refer any case back to Arbitration.
423 <span class="draftadd">
424 Members
425 </span>
426 should understand that they will have
427 strictly limited rights to ask the courts to
428 seek to have a case heard or to override a Ruling.
429 </p>
430
431
432 <h3 id="s2.5"> 2.5 External Courts </h3>
433
434 <p>
435 When an external court claims and asserts its jurisdiction,
436 and issues a court order, subpoena or other service to CAcert,
437 the CM files the order as a dispute, with the external court
438 as <i>Claimant</i>.
439 The CM and other support staff are granted no authority to
440 act on the basis of any court order, and ordinarily
441 must await the order of the Arbitrator
442 (which might simply be a repeat of the external court order).
443 </p>
444
445 <p>
446 The Arbitrator establishes the bona fides of the
447 court, and rules.
448 The Arbitrator may rule to reject the order,
449 for jurisdiction or other reasons.
450 By way of example, if all Parties are
451 <span class="draftadd">
452 Members,
453 </span>
454 then jurisdiction more normally falls within the forum.
455 If the Arbitrator rules to reject,
456 he should do so only after consulting with CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> counsel.
457 The Arbitrator's jurisidiction is ordinarily that of
458 dealing with the order, and
459 not that which the external court has claimed to.
460 </p>
461
462
463 <h3 id="s2.6"> 2.6 Process</h3>
464
465 <p>
466 The Arbitrator follows the procedure:
467 </p>
468
469
470 <ol><li>
471 Establish the facts.
472 The Arbitrator collects the evidence from the parties.
473 The Arbitrator may order CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> or
474 <span class="draftadd">
475 Members
476 </span>
477 under jurisdiction to provide support or information.
478 The Arbitrator may use email, phone or face-to-face
479 meetings as proceedings.
480 </li><li>
481 Apply the Rules of Dispute Resolution,
482 the policies of CAcert and the governing law.
483 The Arbitrator may request that the parties
484 submit their views.
485 The Arbitrator also works to the mission of CAcert,
486 the benefit of all
487 <span class="draftadd">
488 Members
489 </span>
490 , and the community as a whole.
491 The Arbitrator may
492 <span class="draftadd">
493 seek
494 </span>
495 any assistance.
496 </li><li>
497 Makes a considered Ruling.
498 </li></ol>
499
500 <h2 id="s3"> 3. The Ruling</h2>
501
502 <h3 id="s3.1"> 3.1 The Contents </h3>
503
504 <p>
505 The Arbitrator records:
506 </p>
507
508 <ol><li>
509 The Identification of the Parties,
510 </li><li>
511 The Facts,
512 </li><li>
513 The logic of the rules and law,
514 </li><li>
515 The directions and actions to be taken by each party
516 (the ruling).
517 </li><li>
518 The date and place that the ruling is rendered.
519 </li></ol>
520
521
522 <h3 id="s3.2"> 3.2 Process </h3>
523 <p>
524 Once the Ruling is delivered, the case is closed.
525 The Case Manager is responsible for recording the
526 Ruling, publishing it, and advising <span class="draftadd">Members</span>.
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 Proceedings are ordinarily private.
531 The Ruling is ordinarily published,
532 within the bounds of the Privacy Policy.
533 The Ruling is written in English.
534 </p>
535
536 <p>
537 Only under exceptional circumstances can the
538 Arbitrator declare the Ruling private <i>under seal</i>.
539 Such a declaration must be reviewed in its entirety
540 by the Board,
541 and the Board must confirm or deny that declaration.
542 If it confirms, the existence of any Rulings under seal
543 must be published to the
544 <span class="draftadd">
545 Members
546 </span>
547 in a timely manner
548 (within days).
549 </p>
550
551 <h3 id="s3.3"> 3.3 Binding and Final </h3>
552
553 <p>
554 The Ruling is
555 <!-- (DRAFT p20110108) -->
556 <span class="draftadd">ordinarily final and binding </span>
557 <span class="draftdrop">binding and final</span>
558 on CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span> and all
559 <span class="draftadd">
560 Members
561 </span>
562 .
563 Ordinarily, all
564 <span class="draftadd">
565 Members
566 </span>
567 agree to be bound by this dispute
568 resolution policy.
569 <span class="draftadd">
570 Members
571 </span>
572 must declare in the Preliminaries
573 any default in agreement or binding.
574 </p>
575
576 <p>
577 If a person who is not a
578 <span class="draftadd">
579 Member
580 </span>
581 is a party to the dispute,
582 then the Ruling is not binding and final on that person,
583 but the Ruling must be presented in filing any dispute
584 in another forum such as the person's local courts.
585 </p>
586
587 <h3 id="s3.4"> 3.4 <span class="draftadd">Review for Appeal (DRAFT p20110108)</span> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span class="draftdrop">Re-opening the Case or Appeal</span> </h3>
588
589 <p>
590 In the <span class="draftadd">event</span> <span class="draftdrop">case</span> of clear injustices, egregious behaviour or
591 unconscionable Rulings,
592 <span class="draftadd">
593 a review may be requested by filing a dispute (DRAFT p20110108).
594 </span>
595 <span class="draftdrop">
596 parties may seek to re-open the
597 case by filing a dispute.
598 </span>
599 The new Arbitrator reviews the new dispute,
600 re-examines and reviews the entire case, then rules on
601 whether the case may be re-opened or not.
602 </p>
603
604 <p>
605 <span class="draftadd">
606 If the Review Arbitrator rules the case be re-opened,
607 then the Review Arbitrator refers the case to an Appeal Panel of 3.
608 The Appeal Panel is led by a Senior Arbitrator,
609 and is formed according to procedures established
610 by the DRO from time to time.
611 The Appeal Panel hears the case and delivers a final and binding Ruling.
612 (DRAFT p20110108)
613 </span>
614 <span class="draftdrop">
615 If the new Arbitrator rules the case be re-opened,
616 then it is referred to the Board of CAcert Inc.
617 The Board hears the case and delivers a final
618 and binding Ruling.
619 </span>
620 </p>
621
622 <h3 id="s3.5"> 3.5 Liability </h3>
623
624 <p>
625 All liability of the Arbitrator for any act in
626 connection with deciding a dispute is excluded
627 by all parties, provided such act does not constitute
628 an intentional breach of duty.
629 All liability of the Arbitrators, CAcert <span class="draftadd">Inc.</span>, its officers and its
630 employees (including Case Manager)
631 for any other act or omission in connection with
632 arbitration proceedings is excluded, provided such acts do not
633 constitute an intentional or grossly negligent breach of duty.
634 </p>
635
636 <p>
637 The above provisions may only be overridden by
638 appeal process
639 (by means of a new dispute causing referral to the Board).
640
641 </p>
642
643 <h3 id="s3.6"> 3.6 Remedies </h3>
644
645 <p>
646 The Arbitrator generally instructs using internal remedies,
647 that is ones that are within the general domain of
648 <span class="draftdrop">CAcert</span>
649 <span class="draftadd">the Community</span>,
650 but there are some external remedies at his disposal.
651 He may rule and instruct any of the parties on these issues.
652 </p>
653
654 <ul><li>
655 "community service" typically including
656 <ul><li>
657 attend and assure people at trade shows / open source gatherings,
658 </li><li>
659 writing documentation
660 </li><li>
661 serve in <span class="change2">a</span> role - support, dispute arbitration
662 </li></ul>
663 or others as decided.
664
665 </li><li>
666 Fined by loss of assurance points, which may result
667 in losing Assurer or Assured status.
668
669 </li><li>
670 Retraining in role.
671
672 </li><li>
673 Revoking of any certificates.
674
675 </li><li>
676 Monetary fine up to the liability cap established for
677 each party as described in the
678 <span class="draftadd">
679 CAcert Community Agreement.
680 </span>
681
682 </li><li>
683 Exclusion from community.
684
685 </li><li>
686 Reporting to applicable authorities.
687
688 </li><li>
689 Changes to policies and procedures.
690
691 </li></ul>
692
693 <p>
694 The Arbitrator is not limited within the general domain
695 of CAcert, and may instruct novel remedies as seen fit.
696 Novel remedies outside the domain may be routinely
697 confirmed by the Board by way of appeal process,
698 in order to establish precedent.
699
700 </p>
701
702 <h2 id="s4"> 4. Appendix</h2>
703
704
705 <h3 id="s4.1"> 4.1 The Advantages of this Forum </h3>
706 <p>
707 The advantage of this process for
708 <span class="draftadd">
709 Members
710 </span>
711 is:
712 </p>
713
714 <ul><li>
715 CAcert and <span class="draftadd">Members</span> operate across many jurisdictions.
716 Arbitration allows us to select a single set of
717 rules across all jurisdictions.
718 </li><li>
719 Arbitration allows CAcert to appropriately separate
720 out the routine support actions from difficult dispute
721 actions. Support personnel have no authority to
722 act, the appropriately selected Arbitrator has all
723 authority to act.
724 Good governance is thus maintained.
725 </li><li>
726 This forum allows CAcert <span class="draftadd">Members</span> to look after themselves
727 in a community, without exposing each other to potentially
728 disastrous results in strange courts from foreign lands.
729 </li><li>
730 By volunteering to resolve things "in-house" the costs
731 are reduced.
732 </li><li>
733 Even simple support issues such as password changing
734 can be improved by treating as a dispute. A clear
735 chain of request, analysis, ruling and action can be established.
736 </li><li>
737 CAcert Assurers can develop the understanding and the rules
738 for sorting out own problems far better than courts or
739 other external agencies.
740 </li></ul>
741
742 <h3 id="s4.2"> 4.2 The Disadvantages of this Forum </h3>
743
744 <p>
745 Some disadvantages exist.
746 </p>
747
748 <ul><li>
749 <span class="draftadd">Members</span> may have their rights trampled over.
750 In such a case, the community should strive to
751 re-open the case
752 and refer it to the board.
753
754
755 </li><li>
756 <span class="draftadd">Members</span> may feel overwhelmed by the formality
757 of the process.
758 It is kept formal so as to establish good and proper
759 authority to act; otherwise, support and other
760 people in power may act without thought and with
761 damaging consequences.
762 </li><li>
763 A country may not have an Arbitration Act.
764 In that case, the parties should enter into
765 spirit of the forum.
766 If they choose to break that spirit,
767 they should also depart the community.
768 </li></ul>
769
770 <h3 id="s4.3"> 4.3 Process and Flow </h3>
771
772 <p>
773 To the extent reasonable, the Arbitrator conducts
774 the arbitration as with any legal proceedings.
775 This means that the process and style should follow
776 legal tradition.
777 </p>
778
779 <p>
780 However, the Arbitrator is unlikely to be trained in
781 law. Hence, common sense must be applied, and the
782 Arbitrator has wide latitude to rule on any particular
783 motion, pleading, submission. The Arbitrator's ruling
784 is final within the arbitration.
785 </p>
786
787 <p>
788 Note also that many elements of legal proceedings are
789 deliberately left out of the rules.
790 </p>
791
792
793 </body>
794 </html>