bug 1131: Properly escape greater than signs
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34 <h1> Policy On Junior Assurers / Members </h1>
35
36 <table style="width: 100%;">
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38 <td>
39 Editor: Iang<br />
40 Creation Date : <a href="https://svn.cacert.org/CAcert/Assurance/Minutes/20091215HamburgMiniTOP.html">20091215</a><br />
41 Status: POLICY <a href="https://wiki.cacert.org/PolicyDecisions#p20130222">p20130222</a><br />
42 Licence: <a style="color: steelblue" href="https://wiki.cacert.org/Policy#Licence" title="this document is Copyright &copy; CAcert Inc., licensed openly under CC-by-sa with all disputes resolved under DRP. More at wiki.cacert.org/Policy" > CC-by-sa+DRP </a><br />
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44 <a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/PolicyOnPolicy.html"><img src="images/cacert-policy.png" alt="CAcert Policy Status - POLICY" height="31" width="88" style="border-style: none;" /></a>
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47 </table>
48
49 <h2 id="s0"> 0. Preliminaries </h2>
50 <h3 id="s0.1"> 0.1 Authority.</h3>
51 <p>This sub-policy extends the
52 <a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.html">
53 Assurance Policy</a> ("AP" =&gt; COD13)
54 by specifying how Juniors can be brought into the
55 CAcert Community.
56 </p>
57
58 <h3 id="s0.2"> 0.2 Terms.</h3>
59
60 <ul>
61 <li> <b>Minor</b> is a person who is not empowered to enter contracts as self under local laws.</li>
62 <li> <b>Junior</b> is a person under 18. A Junior is probably a Minor.</li>
63 <li> <b>Parent</b>. A competent adult that is legally responsible under local law for the Minor. E.g., a natural or adopted parent, or a legal guardian. Unless otherwise stated, the singular term Parent is used herein, and is used to cover all forms of persons that are legally responsible for the Minor. </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <h2 id="s1"> 1. Scope </h2>
67 <p id="s1.1"><b> 1.1 </b>
68 This policy applies to all Members of the CAcert Community.
69 </p>
70
71 <p id="s1.2"><b> 1.2 </b>
72 Although variations exist in different countries, CAcert works to a principle of no discrimination (Principles) and therefore imposes the same view across all countries.
73 </p>
74
75 <h2 id="s2"> 2. Entering the Community </h2>
76 <p id="s2.1"><b> 2.1 </b>
77 There is no limit on age for membership of CAcert.
78 </p>
79
80 <p id="s2.2"><b> 2.2 </b>
81 Membership requires a legal contract to be formed. This can be formed one of two ways:
82 </p>
83 <ol>
84 <li>the member has capacity to enter the contract themselves, or</li>
85 <li>the member is a Minor and requires the consent of the Parent.</li>
86 </ol>
87
88 <p id="s2.3"><b> 2.3 </b>
89 The Assurer is responsible in all cases for confirming that the entry into the CAcert Community Agreement is founded. This means in practice that the Assurer has to confirm the above.
90 </p>
91
92 <p id="s2.4"><b> 2.4 </b>
93 A general situation in each country is that a Minor can only enter with Parental consent. In this case, the Assurer should confirm the consent of the Parent.
94 </p>
95
96 <p id="s2.5"><b> 2.5 </b>
97 The mechanism for confirming the Parent's consent is something that varies and is not covered by policy. The simple requirement here is that the Assurer makes a reliable statement (CARS) that consent is established, following these two declarations:
98 </p>
99 <blockquote>
100 <p>
101 The Assurer's declaration
102 (specifically referring to Assurance Policy 1.1 part 4
103 <a href="https://www.cacert.org/policy/AssurancePolicy.html#s1.1">AP1.1</a>):
104 </p>
105 <blockquote>
106 <table class="padding5" border="1"><tr><td>
107 This Assurance conducted according to Assurance Policy
108 </td></tr></table>
109 </blockquote>
110 </blockquote>
111 <blockquote>
112 <p>
113 The member's declaration:
114 </p>
115 <blockquote>
116 <table class="padding5" border="1"><tr><td>
117 I agree to the CCA
118 </td></tr></table>
119 </blockquote>
120 </blockquote>
121
122 <p id="s2.6"><b> 2.6 </b>
123 The Assurance Handbook (<a href="https://wiki.cacert.org/AssuranceHandbook2">AH</a>) should expand on common methods to establish and record consent. Such as, on a separate form, a modification to CAP form, etc.
124 </p>
125
126
127 <h2 id="s3"> 3. System Block </h2>
128 <p id="s3.1"><b> 3.1 </b>
129 Although there is no age limit in this policy, it is reasonable that the Assurer should check this issue closely below 18.
130 </p>
131
132 <p id="s3.2"><b> 3.2 </b>
133 For persons over 18, the Assurer may presume that the person has capacity to enter into a contract, in absence of any alternate suggestion. This is regardless of the legal circumstances of the country.
134 </p>
135
136 <p id="s3.3"><b> 3.3 </b>
137 Therefore, a change should be put into the system:
138 </p>
139 <blockquote>
140 <p>
141 If the member is under 18 years of age,<br />
142 the system shall require the Assurer to confirm<br />
143 that consent was established during the Assurance,<br />
144 or otherwise as considered by the Assurer,<br />
145 before additional higher reliance products are available.
146 </p>
147 </blockquote>
148 <p>
149 The system therefore will block all "reliance" products
150 as defined by policy
151 (issuance of named certificates under CPS, Assurer under AP),
152 until consent is established as appropriate.
153 </p>
154 <p>
155 The absence of this feature does not remove the duty of the Assurer (for example, because of delays in implementation).
156 </p>
157
158 <p id="s3.4"><b> 3.4 </b>
159 The first Assurers of a Member may then have the greater technical burden of explaining and confirming the consent, but the confirmation is required of all Assurers as part of the CAP.
160 </p>
161
162 <p id="s3.5"><b> 3.5 </b>
163 The Assurance Handbook (<a href="https://wiki.cacert.org/AssuranceHandbook2">AH</a>) should document more efficient methods, such as a single form carried by the Junior Member for showing to the Assurer, rather than the Parent's signature over each individual CAP form.
164 </p>
165
166
167 <h2 id="s4"> 4. The Junior Assurer </h2>
168 <p id="s4.1"><b> 4.1 </b>
169 Assurer status may only be granted if the user is at least 14 years old. Other preliminaries for the Assurer status set up by other policies are untouched. Combining AP and this policy, a Junior Assurer is a CAcert member with 100 Assurance Points, has passed the CAcert Assurer Challenge, and is between the ages of 14 and 18 years.
170 </p>
171
172 <p id="s4.2"><b> 4.2 </b>
173 A Junior Assurer can issue a maximum of 10 Assurance Points to an assuree, independent of how many Experience Points the Junior already has. The Experience Points awarded to the Junior Assurer are untouched.
174 </p>
175
176 <p id="s4.3"><b> 4.3 </b>
177 The Assurance Handbook (<a href="https://wiki.cacert.org/AssuranceHandbook2">AH</a>)
178 should stipulate the convention as to how the Junior Assurer establishes bona fides.
179 </p>
180
181
182 <h2 id="s5"> 5. Arbitration </h2>
183 <p>
184 Arbitration with Juniors needs to take into account that a local court may find the CCA to be improperly imposed. Some understanding of this risk should be taken, but Arbitrators should be careful not to weaken the web of trust on this basis. Therefore, more care should be taken in explaining and ensuring the spirit of the CCA is maintained.
185 </p>
186 <ul>
187 <li>
188 The Parent may be concerned about the impact of an Arbitration. Technically, the consenting Parent is the one appearing in the Arbitration. The Arbitrator should recognise both the technical (legal) meaning, but strive to maintain the spirit of the Junior member's appearance. For example, Arbitration documentation may name the Parent primarily, and refer to the Junior in text.
189 </li>
190 <li>
191 The Arbitrator may appoint a senior Assurer to advise the Parent on the nature of the Community.
192 </li>
193 <li>
194 A ruling should be tested by comparing it to an adult scenario.
195 </li>
196 </ul>
197 <p>
198 The counter-situation to a weak CCA agreement is that if a person (of any age) feels the CCA to be inappropriate, then they have not entered into the Community. The Arbitrator is at liberty to terminate the CCA with a Member, if there is a sustainable view that it is inappropriate. Such termination should include measures needed to repair the web of trust.
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